membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis


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Related to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

glomerulonephritis

 [glo-mer″u-lo-nĕ-fri´tis]
a variety of nephritis characterized by inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli of the kidney. It occurs in acute, subacute, and chronic forms and may be secondary to an infection, especially with the hemolytic streptococcus.
Histologic appearance of acute glomerulonephritis. A, Normal glomerulus. B, Glomerulonephritis. The glomerulus appears hypercellular and the capillaries are narrowed or occluded. From Damjanov, 2000.
diffuse glomerulonephritis a severe form of glomerulonephritis with proliferative changes in more than half the glomeruli, frequently with epithelial crescent formation and necrosis; it is often seen in cases of advanced systemic lupus erythematosus.
IgA glomerulonephritis IgA nephropathy.
lobular glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) a chronic glomerulonephritis characterized by mesangial cell proliferation and irregular thickening of the glomerular capillary wall. There are two subtypes: Type I is marked by subendothelial deposits and activation of the classic complement pathway. Type II is marked by heavy deposits in the glomerular basement membrane and activation of the alternative complement pathway. Both types occur in older children and young adults and follow a slowly progressing course with irregular remissions ultimately resulting in renal failure.
membranous glomerulonephritis a form characterized by proteinaceous deposits on the glomerular capillary basement membrane or by thickening of the membrane, with circulating antigen-antibody complexes indicating immune complex disease; it may be secondary to any of numerous other conditions. In some cases it may develop into the nephrotic syndrome. Called also membranous nephropathy.
mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis acute glomerulonephritis marked by a rapid progression to end-stage renal disease and histologically by profuse epithelial proliferation, often with epithelial crescents; principal signs are anuria, proteinuria, hematuria, and anemia. Plasmapheresis or high doses of corticosteroids may lead to recovery of renal function.

mem·bra·no·pro·lif·er·a·tive glo·mer·u·lo·ne·phri·tis

chronic glomerulonephritis characterized by mesangial cell proliferation, increased lobular separation of glomeruli, thickening of glomerular capillary walls and increased mesangial matrix, and low serum levels of complement; occurs mainly in older children, with a variably slow progressive course, episodes of hematuria or edema, and hypertension. It is classified into three types: type 1, the most common, in which there are subendothelial electron-dense deposits; type 2, dense-deposit disease, in which the lamina densa is greatly thickened by extremely electron-dense material; type 3, in which there are both subendothelial and subepithelial deposits.

membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

A descriptive term for a pattern of diffuse glomerulonephritis (GN) characterised by mesangial cell proliferation and basement membrane reduplication. MPGN accounts for 5–10% of all GN; it is caused by immune deposits in glomeruli, and often progresses to chronic renal failure.

Aetiology
Primary, typically linked to HCV-induced cryoglobulinaemia, or secondary to various infections including infectious endocarditis, malaria or in HCV infection due to intraglomerular deposition of immune complexes containing HCV, anti-HCV IgG, and IgM rheumatoid factors.

Clinical findings
Presentation ranges from nephrotic and nephritic syndromes to asymptomatic proteinuria and decreased serum C3.

Management
Symptomatic; also treat underlying disease.

Types
• Type I—60–70% of cases; subendothelial electron-dense material composed of C3, IgG, early complement components (C1q, C4, ±IgM).
• Type II—Ribbon type intramembranous dense deposits of C3 in lamina densa of glomerular basement membrane; also mesangial proliferation, crescentic GN.
• Type III—Extremely rare; subendothelial (type-I) and subepithelial immune deposits.

membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis–GN Chronic GN which accounts for 5-10% of all GN, caused by immune deposition in glomeruli; it often progresses to chronic renal
failure

mem·bra·no·pro·lif·er·a·tive glo·mer·u·lo·ne·phri·tis

(mem'bră-nō'prō-lif'ĕr-ă-tiv glō-mer'yū-lō-nĕ-frī'tis)
Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized by mesangial cell proliferation, increased lobular separation of glomeruli, thickening of glomerular capillary walls and increased mesangial matrix, and low serum levels of complement; occurs mainly in older children, with a variably slow progressive course, episodes of hematuria or edema, and hypertension.
Synonym(s): lobular glomerulonephritis.
References in periodicals archive ?
* Cryoglobulinemia should be included in the differential diagnosis of adult nephrotic syndrome, particularly in HCV-infected patients presenting with features of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
A renal biopsy demonstrated "proliferative glomerulonephritis" that we are meant to infer was membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis of the type typically associated with cryoglobulinemia and HCV infection.
Is paraoxonase 192 gene polymorphism a risk factor for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in children?
Results of a controlled drug trial in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Kidney International, 27(2), 436-441.
Leung et al., "Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis secondary to monoclonal gammopathy," Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol.
insipidus, immunotactoid glomerulonephritis, renal amyloidosis, systemic lupus erythematous, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, malignancy, vascular disorders, arterionephrosclerosis, HUS/TTP, allergic interstitial nephritis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, membranous glomerulonephritis, nephritic wasting syndrome, FSGS, IgA nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, cystitis, scleroderma, Goodpasture's disease, nephrotic syndrome, acute tubular necrosis, pyelonephritis, and chronic renal failure.
Ntetskas et al., "Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type 1 secondary to an infected ventriculoperitoneal shunt: a case report," BANTAO Journal, vol.
Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at The Kidney Centre, Karachi, and comprised patients treated for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis between 1996 and 2013.
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is characterized by profound hypocomplementemia, mesangial cell proliferation, mesangial interposition, and the deposition of immunoglobulins and complements in the peripheral portion of the nodules (fringe) formed by merging of glomerular capillaries.
(64,68) In some cases, distinct accentuation of glomerular lobularity creating an appearance reminiscent of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is present, whereas in others, proliferative activity is not pronounced (Figure 27, A).
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a well-known manifestation of hepatitis C.