4c-f), they are membranaceous
with some faint veins, small, cucullate ("hooded") and possibly clawed, between 3.2 and 3.4 mm in length (mean 3.3 mm) and 0.9 and 1.5 mm (mean 1.1 mm) in width.
Algumas especies de bambu, como os Phyllostachys edulis e o Phyllostachys pubescens tem fibras curtas com 1,3-1,5 mm de comprimento, enquanto outras, como o Dendrocalamus giganteus, Dendrocalamus membranaceous
apresentam fibras com 3,2 e 4,3 mm de comprimento (GROSSER e LIESE, 1971, 1974; LIESE, 1998; WEN e CHOU, 1985).
Immunomodulatory effect of polyimmune (Astragalus membranaceous
) extract on humoral response of layer birds vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus.
The morphology of the first eophyll did not differ among the study species, showing ovate-shape membranaceous
leaves with convex apex, margin entire, rounded base, acrodrome leaf venation base and three main veins (Fig.
 Baek NL,Kim YS,Kyung JS, Par KH., 1996,Isolation of anti-hepatotoxic agent from the roots of Astragallus membranaceous
, Korean J Pharmacognosy., 27: 111-6.
However there are many herbs of equal value that if prescribed appropriately may add to the effectiveness of prescriptions, such as Andrographis paniculata, Astragalus membranaceous
(for chronic conditions), Al lium sativum etc.
opposite amplexicaule scale--like leaves, fused to form a collar--like segment, with a membranaceous
/ scarious hyaline margin 0.3 mm wide with a subacute to rounded apex, not or slightly keeled.
Inflorescence broadly capitate, simple, umbellate, apex nearly flat, sunk in the center of the rosette, 8-9 cm long (excluding the petals), 9-12 mm in diameter, 56 to 65-flowered; floral bracts entire to remotely denticulate at the apex, green, membranaceous
, distinctly nerved, longitudinally sulcate mainly near the apex, sparsely to subdensely white-lepidote outside, glabrous inside, the outer ones resembling the involucral bracts, ecarinate, slightly exceeding the ovary, the inner ones narrowly ovate-lanceolate to sublinear-lanceolate, acuminate, ecarinate or bearing a protruded central nerve and appearing carinate, 45-60 x 8-20 mm, slightly exceeding the ovary.
The popular Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceous
, traditionally used to help manage viral infections such as the common cold, has shown some evidence of immune stimulation and antiviral effects (Block 2003, Yesilada 2005, Guo 2004).
Upon examination under microscopy it was observed to be plectomycetes characterized by the production of cleistothecia scattered or gregarious, nonstromatic, obpyriforme, globose to subglobose, 150-275 [micro]m in diameter, hyaline at first, becoming creamy or yellowish, glabrous peridium membranaceous
pseudoparenchymatosum, consisting of texture angularis to globulose, with cells measuring 4-12 x 2.5-5 [micro]m.