in BV consists about 50% of the dry weight, it has many potential effects such as antiviral, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory action in a different type of cells (8,9).
The novel antimicrobial peptide Caeridin-a1, melittin
, and bradykinin were tested in the membrane permeability studies.
In the present study, we aimed to disclose the crucial genes associated with BC and investigate the effect of melittin
on the identified crucial genes in BC.
The analysis also indicated the presence of melittin
(2.8kDa), equivalent to 53.5% melittin
for type 1 apitoxin, and 50.2% melittin
for type 2 apitoxin.
* Raghuraman H, Chattopadyay A (2007) Melittin
: a membrane-active peptide with diverse function, Biosci Rep, 27: 189-223.
BV proteins, mainly melittin
, are also widely used in the treatment of arthritis, frozen shoulder, diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS), skin diseases, heart and blood system related diseases, cancer, ulcer, colitis, and neuritis [14, 15, 17, 19, 24-28].
Bee venom is a complex toxin comprising various kinds of chemicals including melittin
, apamin, adolapin, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, and histamine [3,4], and generalized allergic reaction to these chemicals develops in 0.3~5% of people .
Li et al., "Melittin
inhibits tumor angiogenesis modulated by endothelial progenitor cells associated with the SDF-1"/CXCR4 signaling pathway in a UMR-106 osteosarcoma xenograft mouse model," Molecular Medicine Reports, vol.
Bae et al., "Melittin
has a chondroprotective effect by inhibiting MMP-1 and MMP-8 expressions via blocking NF-[kappa]B and AP-1 signaling pathway in chondrocytes," International Immunopharmacology, vol.
The resulting constructs carried Nterminal melittin
signal sequence for secretion.
, the active compound in apitoxin (bee venom), has anti-inflammatory properties and is believed, by some, to be able to treat a range of ailments.