melancholia

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melancholia

 [mel″an-ko´le-ah]
depression; currently used particularly to describe severe cases of major depressive disorder. adj., adj melanchol´ic.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

mel·an·cho·li·a

(mel'ăn-kō'lē-ă),
1. A severe form of depression marked by anhedonia, insomnia, psychomotor changes, and guilt.
2. A symptom occurring in other conditions, marked by depression of spirits and by a sluggish and painful process of thought.
Synonym(s): melancholy
[melan- + G. cholē, bile. See humoral doctrine]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

melancholia

(mĕl′ən-kō′lē-ə)
n.
Extreme, persistent sadness or hopelessness; depression. No longer in clinical use.

mel′an·cho′li·ac (-lē-ăk′) adj. & n.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

melancholia

Medical history
In ancient usage, melancholia encompassed schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
 
Psychiatry
In modern use, melanocholia refers to an array of mental or emotional symptoms of depression or despondency, which are now subsumed under major and minor depression and dysthymia.

Psychoanalysis
Severe depression characterised by a loss of interest in life activities, early morning awakening with intensification of symptoms, variable functionality, anorexia, weight loss and inappropriate sense of guilt. 

Melancholia contrasts to prolonged mourning (melancholy); Freud viewed melancholia as an impoverishment of the ego as there is an internal loss, while in mourning the loss is external. Because of the internal loss, the melancholic ego appears empty and has a shattered self-esteem, due to reproach and attack from the superego. It is more common in women and is accompanied by helplessness and suicide attempts or ideation.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

melancholia

melan, Greek, black; chole, bile Psychiatry Psychotic depression similar/identical to the depression of bipolar disease, characterized by severe depression, loss of interest in life activities, early morning awakening with intensification of Sx, marked ↑/↓ functionality, anorexia, weight loss, inappropriate sense of guilt. See Involutional melancholia. Cf Melancholy.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

mel·an·cho·li·a

(mel-ăn-kō'lē-ă)
1. A severe form of depression marked by anhedonia, insomnia, psychomotor changes, and guilt.
2. A symptom occurring in other conditions, marked by depression of spirits and by a sluggish and painful process of thought.
Synonym(s): melancholy.
[melan- + G. cholē, bile]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

melancholia

DEPRESSION.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(9.) Julia Kristeva, Black Sun.: Depression and Melancholiac (New York, 1989), esp.
Although this paper does not argue that Fiometa exhibits pathological signs of melancholia--a subject that Flores could have been aware of since during the fifteenth century the epistemology on melancholia was trending, and it was believed to lead melancholiacs to suicide--, it seems possible that Flores is redeploying traits of melancholia to underscore Fiometa's acute amor hereos and her self-harming anger.
Those seeking for their own denominational purposes to encourage Anglican conformity often blamed melancholic vapors for "generating delusions and apparitions so powerful that their [Puritan] possessors felt they came from heaven." Even celebrated physicians commented that the delusions of religious melancholiacs would ultimately terminate in madness and suicide.
In contrast to all the melancholiacs and world-weary fantasizers who hysterically imitate with their psychic suffering the cultural malaise of their times, LHeureux, like Homais, profits from the course of events because he is able to transform an intangible desire without any external corporeality into a commodity with substance.