A class of oral glucose-lowering drugs that act by closing ATP-dependent potassium channels in pancreatic beta cells, thus causing calcium channel opening and subsequent insulin release.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
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The traditional choices of drugs are metformin, thiazolinediones and meglitinides. Modern diabetes management options including newer sulfonylureas, incretin based therapies (DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 analogues), SGLT-2 inhibitors, analogue basal and prandial insulins, and modern insulin pumps address the issue of GV effectively.2,11
Presently, there are 11 different classes of hypoglycemic agents (biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones (TZD), [alpha]-glucosidase inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, amylin mimetics, meglitinides, dopamine-2 agonists, and bile acid sequestrants) along with numerous insulin preparations available as a treatment option for type 2 DM.
Meglitinides (repaglinide, nateglitinide) are similar to sulfonylureas, but with less efficacy, more rapid onset and shorter duration of action.
Oral synthetic diabetic drugs such as meglitinides, sulfonylureas, and others may cause hypoglycemia.
Meglitinides (glitinides) are insulin secretagogues, and they stimulate insulin release from pancreas [1-3].
These drugs are divided into several groups according to their mechanisms as secretogogues (sulfonylureas and meglitinides), insulin sensitizers (biguanides and thiazolidinediones), and [alpha]-glucosidase inhibitors (miglitol and acarbose) (7).
There are seven pharmacologic subclasses of oral antidiabetic agents: alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, meglitinides, sulfonylureas, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones.
The greatest compliance was observed with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (100%) and meglitinides (100%); nonetheless, only 5 participants used these drugs.
Oral and injectable noninsulin hypoglycemic drugs available in 2008 included metformin, sulfonylureas, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, amylinomimetics, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists (GLP-1), and meglitinides. During the study period, all TZDs, DPP-4s, GLP-ls, and meglitinides were single-source, brand-only preparations.
The OGA group contains the following OGAs: metformin, sulphonylurea, thiazolidinediones, alfa glucosidase inhibitors, DPP4 inhibitors, meglitinides, and GLP-1 receptor agonists.