The same is believed to have formed Medusae
Fossae, but until now, it was unclear whether it was water, ice, wind, or volcanic eruption that accumulated the materials required for the process.
Greenhouse gases exhaled during the eruptions that spawned the Medusae
Fossae could have warmed Mars's surface enough for water to remain liquid at its surface, but toxic volcanic gases like hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide would have altered the chemistry of Mars's surface and atmosphere.
Schuchert P (2006) The European athecate hydroids and their medusae
(Hydrozoa: Cnidaria) Capitata Part 1.
About thirty newly released medusae
were found within an aquarium on September 2008.
In contrast, rowing medusae
have oblate bells (fineness ratio <0.5) and are not constrained by size (Dabiri et al., 2007).
It turns out that the sediments of the Medusae
Fossae formation, which in some places reach depths of z more than 2 km, sit atop a flat, featureless surface that's probably a continuation of the volcanic plains to the north.
Observations of medusae
were taken from both piers on each date and while snorkeling on 12 July, 2 August, 4 August and 7 September.
of Copula sivickisi (formerly known as Carybdea sivickisi (Stiasny 1926)) for tank experiments were collected at night from three nearshore locations at the island of Aka, Okinawa, Japan, during August 2009, 2010, and 2011.
Various nominal species of Obelia hydroids were reported for the Buenos Aires coast (Blanco, 1994; Genzano & Zamponi, 1997, 2003) but there is not way to recognize the medusae
species and they are usually named Obelia spp.
nomurai has been well established by us and our coworkers (17), (18), so the juvenile medusae
are easily available.
generally possess small, prolate bells (i.e., high aspect or fineness ratio) with constricted orifices leading to their subumbrellar cavities (Colin and Costello, 2002; Dabiri et al., 2006).
By virtue of their size, large medusae
swim in an inertially dominated flow regime, and entrainment of prey within swimming-induced currents is important for adult feeding (Costello and Colin, 1995).