medulla oblongata


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Related to medulla oblongata: cerebellum, pons, hypothalamus, midbrain, spinal cord

medulla

 [mĕ-dul´ah] (L.)
1. the inmost part of a structure or organ.
3. marrow. adj., adj med´ullary.
adrenal medulla the inner portion of the adrenal gland, where epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced.
medulla of bone bone marrow.
medulla oblonga´ta that part of the hindbrain continuous with the pons above and the spinal cord below; it houses nerve centers for both motor and sensory nerves, where such functions as breathing and the beating of the heart are controlled. See also brain.
medulla os´sium bone marrow.
renal medulla the inner part of the substance of the kidney, composed chiefly of collecting tubules, and organized into a group of structures called the renal pyramids.
medulla spina´lis (medulla spina´lis) spinal cord.
medulla of thymus the central portion of each lobule of the thymus; it contains many more reticular cells and far fewer lymphocytes than does the surrounding cortex.

me·dul·la ob·lon·ga·'ta

[TA]
the most caudal subdivision of the brainstem, immediately continuous with the spinal cord, extending from the lower border of the decussation of the pyramid to the pons; its anterior (ventral) surface resembles that of the spinal cord except for the bilateral prominence of the inferior olive; the posterior (dorsal) surface of its upper half forms part of the floor of the fourth ventricle. Motor nuclei of the medulla oblongata include the hypoglossal nucleus, the dorsal motor nucleus, inferior salivatory nucleus, and the nucleus ambiguus; sensory nuclei include the nuclei of the posterior column (gracile and cuneate), the cochlear and vestibular nuclei, the middle and caudal portions of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract.
See also: medulla.
Synonym(s): myelencephalon [TA], oblongata

medulla oblongata

(ŏb′lông-gä′tə)
n. pl. medulla oblonga·tas or medullae oblongatae (mĭ-dŭl′ē ŏb′lông-gä′tē)
The lowermost portion of the vertebrate brain, continuous with the spinal cord, responsible for the control of respiration, circulation, and certain other bodily functions.

medulla oblongata

The lower half of the brain stem, which is located between the spinal cord and the pons.

Content
• Cardiac centre—Sympathetic, parasympathetic systems. 
• Respiration centre—Contains chemoreceptors.
• Vasomotor centre—Contains baroreceptors.
• Reflex centres—For vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing.

Function
Autonomic and involuntary functions, including breathing, maintaining the heart rate and blood pressure.

me·dul·la ob·lon·ga·ta

(mĕ-dŭl'ă ob-long-gā'tă) [TA]
The most caudal subdivision of the brainstem, continuous with the spinal cord, extending from the lower border of the decussation of the pyramid to the pons; its ventral surface resembles that of the spinal cord except for the bilateral prominence of the inferior olive; the dorsal surface of its upper half forms part of the floor of the fourth ventricle. Motor nucleiof the medulla oblongata include the hypoglossal nucleus, the dorsal motor nucleus, inferior salivatory nucleus, and the nucleus ambiguus; sensory nuclei include the nuclei of the posterior column (gracile and cuneate), the cochlear and vestibular nuclei, the mid and caudal portions of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract.
See also: medulla
Synonym(s): myelencephalon, oblongata.

medulla

(me-dul'a, dul') plural.medullae [L. medulla, marrow, pith]
1. Marrow (1).
2. In anatomy, the innermost or central portion of an organ in contrast to the cortex.
3. The caudal segment of the hindbrain. Synonym: medulla oblongata; bulb (2)
4. The medulla ossium. medullary (med'ul-er?e, mej?), adjective
Enlarge picture
ADRENAL MEDULLA

adrenal medulla

The central tissue of the adrenal gland. It is filled with pheochromocytes, which are derived from the neural crest and resemble postsynaptic sympathetic ganglion cells. In response to stimulation by presynaptic sympathetic axons, the pheochromocytes secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream. See: illustration
See: adrenal gland

medulla of hair

The central axis of a hair.

medulla of kidneys

See: pyramid, renal

medulla nephrica

See: pyramid, renal

medulla oblongata

Medulla (3).

medulla ossium

Marrow (1).

medulla of ovary

The central portion of the ovary, composed of loose connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves.

medulla spinalis

The spinal cord.

medulla oblongata

The part of the BRAINSTEM lying below the PONS and immediately above the spinal cord, just in front of the CEREBELLUM. The medulla oblongata contains the nuclei of the lower four CRANIAL NERVES, the vital centres for respiration and control of heart-beat, and the long motor and sensory tracts running down to and up from the spinal cord. Disease or injury to the medulla is always serious, often fatal.

medulla oblongata

the posterior part of the hindbrain of vertebrates that connects with the spinal cord. It is ventrally thick-walled and contains groupings of nerve cells called nuclei. The thin-walled posterior CHOROID PLEXUS is situated on its dorsal side. The medulla contains several important areas of nervous control not influenced by conscious action. The respiratory and cardiovascular centres control respiration and heartbeat and organs of the LATERAL-LINE SYSTEM. The ear, taste and touch receptors also have their impulses coordinated in the medulla.

Medulla oblongata

The lowest section of the brainstem, located next to the spinal cord. The medulla is the site of important cardiac and respiratory regulatory centers.
Mentioned in: Anesthesia, General

me·dul·la ob·lon·ga·ta

(mĕ-dŭl'ă ob-long-gā'tă) [TA]
The most caudal subdivision of the brainstem, continuous with the spinal cord, extending from the lower border of the decussation of the pyramid to the pons.
Synonym(s): myelencephalon, oblongata.
References in periodicals archive ?
This aimed to identify the apparent origin of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves in the medulla oblongata. Those parts exhibiting any deformation were not included.
Finally, the "LAT" orientation pattern was found in cerebellum, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, pons, and spinal cord.
In the development process of the corticospinal tract of the rats, the leading axons are at the level of the medulla oblongata immediately after birth and extend toward the lumbosacral cord over a period of approximately 3 weeks, reaching the state of adult rats [9, 10].
Teruya et al., "Ouabain-like immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of rats," Archives of Histology and Cytology, vol.
sinensis Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Cerebellum and Medulla Oblongata of Mice Newborns.
(1, 5) Most sites are therefore supratentorial, more so in infants than in older children, (3) but rare instances have been described of teratomas in the cerebellar vermis, fourth ventricle and the medulla oblongata. (1, 5) Teratomas contain structures derived from all three germ cell layers and can be mature and benign or be immature and associated with different malignant forms.
Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on admission [Figure 1], revealed a high signal intensity lesion involving basis pontis and medulla oblongata on both the T2-weighted image [Figure 1]b and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) [Figure 1]d.
Many anatomic locations including especially medulla oblongata and hypothalamus have been blamed in occurence of NPE (10).
The ECS consists of circulating endocannabinoids derived from cell membrane omega-6 fatty acids, mainly arachidonic acid, and the corresponding network of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (i.e., CB1 and CB2) scattered throughout the body, especially in some of the oldest parts of the central nervous system (CNS) (i.e., limbic system, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata).
Positive staining for TFF3 peptide was also detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of neurons occupying different nuclei of brain and medulla oblongata (Figure 2B).
Intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions (Negri bodies) were observed in neurons of the medulla oblongata. No lesions were observed in the other organs.
"The me2 meme burrows into the medulla oblongata of susceptible degenerates and sends devious neural signals to their synapses, triggering imitative behavior," he explained ominously.