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Walser [13] described and illustrated a case, in which a "port catheter was negotiated into the superior vena cava by way of a large, crossed-cervical venous collateral", but without exact anatomical description of the veins and illustrating a catheter with probably just a subcutaneous "cross-cervical" route and then passing through a large mediastinal vein. Even intercostal veins may serve as transcollateral venous access for port placement; however, this procedure requires a thoracotomy [14].
Table 1: Anatomical distribution of arterial injury Arterial injuries n Cervical arteries Common carotid 19 Internal carotid 8 External carotid 3 Subclavian 21 Axillary 13 Vertebral 4 Internal mammary 1 Costocervical 1 Dorsal scapular 1 Mediastinal arteries Ascending and arch of aorta 5 Descending aorta 7 Innominate artery 3 Pulmonary artery 1 Total 87 Table 2: The anatomical distribution of venous injury Venous injuries n Cervical veins Internal jugular 6 Subclavian 5 Axillary 6 Mediastinal veins Pulmonary 2 Superior vena cava 1 Total 20