mediastinal lesion

(redirected from mediastinal mass)

mediastinal lesion

Any mass, benign or malignant, infectious or reactive, that is found in the mediastinum.

Aetiology
▪ Non-neoplastic.
▪ Developmental:
   – Cysts;
   – Tissue in an abnormal location.
▪ Inflammatory/fibrosing conditions
▪ Thymic hyperplasia.
▪ Neoplastic.
▪ Thymic tumours.
▪ Lymphomas:
   – Hodgkin lymphoma;
   – Primary DLBC lymphoma;
   – Lymphoblastic lymphoma.
▪ Germ cell tumours.
▪ Neurogenic tumours:
   – Posterior mediastinum—sympathetic chain and nerve roots.
▪ Sympathetic nervous system:
   – Neuroblastoma;
   – Ganglioneuroblastoma;
   – Ganglioneuroma.
▪ Peripheral nerve sheath tumours:
   – Schwannoma;
   – Neurofibroma;
   – MPNST—De novo, von Recklinghausens, post-radiotherapy.
▪ Soft tissue tumours: 
   – Vascular—Lymphangioma, haemangioma, angisarcoma;
   – Fat—Lipoma, lipoblastoma, thymolipoma, liposarcoma;
   – Smooth muscle—Leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma
   – Bone—Chondroma, chondrosarcoma;
   – Other—Solitary fibrous tumour (benign or malignant), mesothelioma.
▪ Ectopic tissue:
   – Thyroid lesions;
   – Parathyroid lesions.
▪ Paraganglioma.
▪ Oesophageal.
▪ Metastatic tumours (carcinoma, etc.).
▪ Others:
   – Meningioma;
   – Chordoma;
   – Myxoma;
   – Granular cell tumour;
   – Amyloid;
   – Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
With persistent symptoms after conservative management, subsequent work-up, including an echocardiogram, demonstrated a mediastinal mass with compression of the right ventricle.
Caption: Figure 1: Frontal radiograph of the right shoulder shows a superior mediastinal mass (green arrow) within the right hemithorax.
The most common mediastinal mass is neurogenic tumors (20%), found in the posterior mediastinum, followed by thymoma (15%-20%) located in the anterior mediastinum.
3) revealed an ill-defined mediastinal mass, enlarged pre-tracheal and para-bronchial lymph nodes, moderate pericardial effusion, concentric thickening of left ventricular wall and impaired contractility.
A CXR revealed a widened mediastinum and left pleural effusion (Figure 1(a)) and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed a mediastinal mass of 12 cm by 7 cm, compressing the trachea (Figure 1(b)).
Regarding extramedullary haematopoiesis: an uncommon posterior mediastinal mass:
A chest x-ray revealed evidence of aspiration pneumonia and a large mediastinal mass with an air-fluid level that caused anterior tracheal deviation, consistent with a possible Zenker diverticulum (ZD).
He was diagnosed with SVC syndrome secondary to a mediastinal mass, demonstrated best by computed tomography (CT) [Figures 1, 2, 3].
A large anterior mediastinal mass compresses the SVC due to the thinness of its wall and its close apposition to the vertebral column.
It is commonly seen in adolescent males, often with a high total leukocyte count, and mediastinal mass in over half the cases [1].
A 53-year-old woman presented with a left anterior mediastinal mass and a right hilar mass (Figure 1, A through C).
A CT scan was performed which demonstrated a large anterior mediastinal mass in the right hemithorax with smooth margins and linear calcification.