mediastinal lesion

mediastinal lesion

Any mass, benign or malignant, infectious or reactive, that is found in the mediastinum.

Aetiology
▪ Non-neoplastic.
▪ Developmental:
   – Cysts;
   – Tissue in an abnormal location.
▪ Inflammatory/fibrosing conditions
▪ Thymic hyperplasia.
▪ Neoplastic.
▪ Thymic tumours.
▪ Lymphomas:
   – Hodgkin lymphoma;
   – Primary DLBC lymphoma;
   – Lymphoblastic lymphoma.
▪ Germ cell tumours.
▪ Neurogenic tumours:
   – Posterior mediastinum—sympathetic chain and nerve roots.
▪ Sympathetic nervous system:
   – Neuroblastoma;
   – Ganglioneuroblastoma;
   – Ganglioneuroma.
▪ Peripheral nerve sheath tumours:
   – Schwannoma;
   – Neurofibroma;
   – MPNST—De novo, von Recklinghausens, post-radiotherapy.
▪ Soft tissue tumours: 
   – Vascular—Lymphangioma, haemangioma, angisarcoma;
   – Fat—Lipoma, lipoblastoma, thymolipoma, liposarcoma;
   – Smooth muscle—Leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma
   – Bone—Chondroma, chondrosarcoma;
   – Other—Solitary fibrous tumour (benign or malignant), mesothelioma.
▪ Ectopic tissue:
   – Thyroid lesions;
   – Parathyroid lesions.
▪ Paraganglioma.
▪ Oesophageal.
▪ Metastatic tumours (carcinoma, etc.).
▪ Others:
   – Meningioma;
   – Chordoma;
   – Myxoma;
   – Granular cell tumour;
   – Amyloid;
   – Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Studies from New Delhi by Riti Aggarwal, Seema rao et al, [3] Japan by Takeda S, Miyoshi S, Akashi A et al [4], Bengaluru by H J Gayatri Jayanth K Das et al, [5] China by Tingting Liu, Lika'a Fasih Y et al [6] and Nepal by Karki S, Chalse S et al [12] all show thymomas as most common benign mediastinal lesion followed by Lymphomas as most common malignant lesions which correlates with the present study in adults--Table 3.
In our case, the patient had fallen from a height of 2 m; he presented with right chest pain, and chest radiography revealed the posterior mediastinal lesion.
In this study, 25 patients with an anterior mediastinal lesion underwent CT perfusion imaging from January 2015 to February 2016.
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging of her chest revealed a posterior superior mediastinal lesion with an area of approximately 2.7 x 1.3 cm (Figure 1) and a value of approximately 122 HU.
It revealed multiple dilated vascular channels with flat endothelial like cells in the bone biopsies and mediastinal lesion with predominantly lymphangiomatous process (Figures 5(a) and 5(b)).
with only a minor degree of airway invasion by mediastinal lesion) cause of the critical airway obstruction.
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated that the neck mass detected on sonography was a homogenous anterior mediastinal lesion extending to the neck, compatible with hyperplasia of the thymus (Fig.
Incidence of Mediastinal Lesion according to i) Location, ii) Age, iii) Gender and iv) Type of Lesion
Next, contrast-enhanced CT was done, and it showed that the mediastinal lesion pointed out on FDG-PET/CT was actually a continuous extension of the lung mass into the right main pulmonary artery.
However, recently Inoue et al (64) reported a patient with sclerosing mediastinitis who had elevated serum IgG4 and increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the mediastinal lesion. They suggested the possibility of an IgG4-related immunopathologic process similar to sclerosing pancreatitis.
Finally, the cervicothoracic sign (Figure 6) is used to determine the location of a mediastinal lesion in the upper chest.
(6) The case of our patient 1 illustrates how a mediastinal lesion may mimic a thyroid mass on physical examination but be readily apparent as such on CT.

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