mediastinal emphysema

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Related to mediastinal emphysema: pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema


Abnormal presence of air in mediastinal tissues; multiple causes include pulmonary interstitial emphysema, ruptured bleb, perforation of the cervical or thoracic esophagus or airways, cervicomediastinal infection, and perforated abdominal viscus.
[G. pneuma, air, + mediastinum]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

mediastinal emphysema

The presence of air in mediastinal soft tissues.

Clinical findings
Severe chest pain, dyspnoea, Hamman sign.

• Respiratory tract—trauma to lungs, perforation of upper airways, asthma, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.
• GI tract—rupture of oesophagus, bowel.
• Other (e.g., obesity).
Usually conservative, as emphysema slowly resolves on its own; in the face of lung collapse, the patient must lie on the side of the collapsed lung.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

mediastinal emphysema

Pneumomediastinum Surgery Air in mediastinal soft tissues which may be linked to perforation of the trachea. See Mediastinal crunch, Mediastinum.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

me·di·as·ti·nal em·phy·se·ma

(mē'dē-ă-stī'năl em'fi-sē'mă)
Deflection of air, usually from a ruptured emphysematous bleb in the lung, into the mediastinal tissue.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
(11) reported subcutaneous cervicofacial and mediastinal emphysema resulting from a laser incision made for the drainage of a gingival abscess caused by periodontitis.
Cervicofacial and mediastinal emphysema should be considered in patients who present to the emergency department with neck pain and swelling of the face and neck following dental procedures.
Spontaneous mediastinal emphysema Eur J Cardio thorac Surg 2004;26(5):885-888.
With mediastinal emphysema, further transmission of air up fascial planes can be reduced by eliminating straining and increasing intrathoracic pressure with cough suppressants, stool softeners, analgesics, and bed rest.
When the history and physical examination suggest spontaneous pneumomediastinum, confirmation of the diagnosis may be established by radiological evidence of mediastinal emphysema on plain chest films.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 1927; 14:633-646 [4.] Hamman L: Spontaneous mediastinal emphysema. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 1939; 64:1-21 [5.] Halperin AK, Deichmann RE: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A report of 10 cases and review of the literature.
Mediastinal emphysema secondary to fracture of orbital floor.
Mediastinal emphysema complicating a zygomatic fracture: A case report and review of the literature.
CT identified either neck abscesses extending into the mediastinum or mediastinal emphysema (table 1).
Subcutaneous cervicofacial and mediastinal emphysema after dental instrumentation.
(9) Subcutaneous cervicofacial and mediastinal emphysema occurs when interstitial air is present in the soft tissues of the head, neck, and thorax.