MNI: Montreal Neurological Institute space; HPs: hyperthyroid patients; HCs: health controls; BA: Brodmann area; MeFG: medial frontal gyrus
Consistently increased brain activation in medial frontal gyrus
, middle frontal gyrus, precentral and postcentral gyrus, and sub-gyrus was found in schizophrenia patients from pre- to post-CRT, though the training approaches were different.
Brain regions MNI coordinates BA (x, y, z) Medial frontal gyrus
12 3 54 6/24 Medial frontal gyrus
-12 -18 60 6/3/4 Thalamus 3 -9 6 -- -- Pon -18 -24 -33 -- Insula 42 12 -9 13 Putamen -21 6 -12 -- Postcentral gyrus -48 -16 22 3 Cerebellum -30 -66 -21 -- Cerebellum -33 -51 -48 -- Brain regions L/R Voxels T values Medial frontal gyrus
R 31 6.2621 Medial frontal gyrus
L 285 8.7196 Thalamus R 146 8.1692 L 210 Pon L 20 7.5021 Insula R 20 4.6318 Putamen L 12 5.4318 Postcentral gyrus L 25 5.022 Cerebellum L 102 6.1046 Cerebellum L 72 5.6012 Table 4: Group differences between Sham and SD are shown (P < 0.001, cluster >20 voxels, uncorrected).
The other included the medial aspect of the right superior frontal gyrus, the dorsolateral region of the left superior frontal gyrus, and the right medial frontal gyrus
and surrounding region."
There was a bigger jump in relative activity in three brain areas of HSDD women - the medial frontal gyrus
, right inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral putamen - compared with the control subjects when shown the erotic clips.
When viewing sexual pictures, female OCD patients showed more activation in the medial frontal gyrus
, precuneus, right cingulate gyrus, and left insula, compared with controls.
Compared with the nonaerobic group, fMRI testing showed that subjects in the cardiovascular training group had significantly greater activity in the medial frontal gyrus
, the superior frontal gyrus, and the inferior parietal lobule, and significantly lower activity in the anterior cingulate cortex.
We also compared the FC to the PCC between two groups and found that the aCAS patients showed decreased connectivity mainly in the Right Supra and Medial Frontal Gyrus
when compared with healthy controls.
ReHo differed significantly between the deaf and hearing group in left superior temporal gyrus (BA22) (p = 0.0117, ES = 0.86), left inferior frontal gyrus (BA45) (p = 0.0038, ES = 1.00), left inferior prefrontal gyrus (BA47) (p = 0.0016, ES = 1.10), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA46) (p = 0.0076, ES = 0.91), left medial frontal gyrus
(BA32) (p = 0.003, ES = 1.03), and left temporal polar gyrus (BA38) (p = 0.0102, ES = 0.88) (deaf < hearing), which are responsible for auditory processing, language perception, executive function, and behavior and decision-making.
PCC: posterior cingulate cortex; MedFG: medial frontal gyrus
; ACC: anterior cingulate cortex; MFG: middle frontal gyrus; IFG: inferior frontal gyrus; SMA: supplementary motor area.
AE [up arrow] + LR Frontal Lobe, Precentral Gyrus 4 AE [up arrow] + LR Frontal Lobe, Medial Frontal Gyrus
6 AE= + LR Parietal Lobe, Postcentral Gyrus 3 AE [down arrow] + LR Parietal Lobe, Postcentral Gyrus 2 Table 2: Deactivated brain regions by isolated dominant arm elevation or combined dominant arm elevation with nondominant upper limb restriction.