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1. the process or act of supplying a house or room continuously with fresh air.
2. in respiratory physiology, the process of exchange of air between the lungs and the ambient air; see alveolar ventilation and pulmonary ventilation. See also respiration (def. 1). Called also breathing.
3. in psychiatry, verbalization of one's problems, emotions, or feelings.
alveolar ventilation a fraction of the pulmonary ventilation, being the amount of air that reaches the alveoli and is available for gas exchange with the blood.
assist/control mode ventilation positive pressure ventilation in the assist-control mode; if the spontaneous ventilation rate falls below a preset level, the ventilator enters the control mode.
assisted ventilation artificial respiration.
assist mode ventilation positive pressure ventilation in which the ventilator is in the assist-control mode; see also control mode ventilation and assist/control mode ventilation.
controlled ventilation (control mode ventilation) positive pressure ventilation in which the ventilator is in control mode, with its cycle entirely controlled by the apparatus and not influenced by the patient's efforts at spontaneous ventilation.
high-frequency ventilation a technique of mechanical ventilation that uses very high rates (over 80 breaths per minute) and small tidal volumes (equal to or less than dead space); it may either be positive pressure ventilation or be delivered in the form of frequent jets of air. It is used to lower the peak airway pressure applied to the lung, thus decreasing the risk of barotrauma.
high-frequency jet ventilation a type of high-frequency ventilation characterized by delivery of gas through a small catheter in the endotracheal tube.
high-frequency percussive ventilation a type of high-frequency ventilation characterized by delivery of pressure-limited breaths in short bursts of gas from a venturi mask.
high-frequency positive pressure ventilation a type of high-frequency ventilation characterized by low compressible volume circuit and tidal volume delivery of 3 to 4 mL per kg.
impaired spontaneous ventilation a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a state in which an individual's decreased energy reserves result in inability to maintain breathing adequate to support life. See also spontaneous ventilation.
intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) a type of control mode ventilation in which the patient breathes spontaneously while the ventilator delivers a prescribed tidal volume at specified intervals and allows the patient to breathe spontaneously between cycles. The ventilator rate is set to maintain the patient's PaCO2 at desired levels and is reduced gradually to zero as the patient's condition improves. See also intermittent positive-pressure breathing.
intermittent mandatory ventilation, synchronized (SIMV) positive pressure ventilation in which the patient breathes spontaneously while the ventilator delivers a positive-pressure breath at intervals that are predetermined but synchronized with the patient's breathing.
intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) intermittent positive pressure breathing.
maximal voluntary ventilation (maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV)) the maximum volume that can be exhaled per minute by the patient breathing as rapidly and deeply as possible. Called also maximal breathing capacity.
1. ventilation accomplished by extrinsic means, usually distinguished as either negative pressure or positive pressure ventilation. See also spontaneous ventilation.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of an artificial device to assist a patient to breathe.
minute ventilation the total volume of gas in liters expelled from the lungs per minute. See also minute volume. Called also total ventilation.
negative pressure ventilation a type of mechanical ventilation in which negative pressure is generated on the outside of the patient's chest and transmitted to the interior of the thorax in order to expand the lungs and allow air to flow in; used primarily with patients having paralysis of the chest muscles. See also ventilator.
noninvasive ventilation mechanical ventilation that does not use an artificial airway, such as positive pressure ventilation with a nasal or face mask.
partial liquid ventilation ventilatory support in which the lungs are filled to the level of the functional residual capacity with a liquid perfluorocarbon; mechanical ventilation is then superimposed and oxygen and carbon dioxide are transferred through the liquid.
positive pressure ventilation any of numerous types of mechanical ventilation in which gas is delivered into the airways and lungs under positive pressure, producing positive airway pressure during inspiration; it may be done via either an endotracheal tube or a nasal mask. See also ventilator.
pressure control ventilation positive pressure ventilation in which breaths are augmented by air at a fixed rate and amount of pressure, with tidal volume not being fixed; used particularly for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
pressure support ventilation positive pressure ventilation in which the patient breathes spontaneously and breathing is augmented with air at a preset amount of pressure, with tidal volume not being fixed.
proportional assist ventilation positive pressure ventilation in which the ventilator can sense the patient's level of inspiratory flow and deliver pressure support to achieve a given tidal volume.
pulmonary ventilation a measure of the rate of ventilation, referring to the total exchange of air between the lungs and the ambient air, usually in liters per minute.
spontaneous ventilation term used to denote breathing accomplished naturally, without any artificial aids, as opposed to mechanical ventilation and other forms of artificial respiration.
total ventilation minute ventilation.
any mechanically assisted breathing, employing either positive- or negative-pressure devices. Some positive-pressure devices require intubation of the trachea, others require only a mask applied to mouth or nose. For the past several decades, the standard way of ventilating a patient with respiratory failure mechanically has involved intubation of the trachea and either pressure- or volume-limited application of positive pressure to the lungs through an endotracheal tube; currently, the need for intubation in any case is coming into question and many patients experiencing chronic respiratory failure can be adequately ventilated by noninvasive devices.
mechanical ventilationMechanically assisted respiration in which inspiration is driven at a preset frequency or triggered by the patient.
PO2 < 60 mm Hg, despite non-interventional efforts (mask, bronchodilators, diuretics and physical therapy); chest wall restriction (kyphoscoliosis, thoracoplasty, COPD); CNS and brainstem disease (central apnoea); primary alveolar hypertension, tumours, vascular malformation; degenerative disease (Shy-Drager disease, spinocerebellar degeneration); neuromuscular disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, myopathy, phrenic nerve damage, poliomyelitis, spinal cord disease (cervical trauma, quadriplegia, syringomyelia).
mechanical ventilationAssisted mechanical ventilation Mechanically assisted respiration in which inspiration is driven at a preset frequency or triggered by the Pt Indications PO2 < 60 mm Hg, despite non-interventional efforts–mask, bronchodilators, diuretics, and physical therapy, chest wall restriction–kyphoscoliosis, thoracoplasty, COPD, CNS and brainstem disease–central apnea, 1º alveolar HTN, tumors, vascular malformation, degenerative disease–Shy-Drager disease, spinocerebellar degeneration, neuromuscular disease–amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, myopathy, phrenic nerve damage, poliomyelitis, spinal cord disease–cervical trauma, quadriplegia, syringomyelia
me·chan·i·cal ven·ti·la·tion(mĕ-kan'i-kăl ven'ti-lā'shŭn)
The use of an automatic mechanical device to perform all or part of the work of breathing.
See also: ventilator
See also: ventilator
renewal or exchange of gas in an enclosed space.
1. the process or act of supplying a building or part of it continuously with fresh air.
2. in respiratory physiology, the process of exchange of air between the lungs and the ambient air. Pulmonary ventilation (usually measured in liters per minute) refers to the total exchange, whereas alveolar ventilation refers to the effective ventilation of the alveoli, where gas exchange with the blood takes place. See also air movement.
the amount of gas expelled from the alveoli to the outside of the body per minute.
see artificial respiration.
the depth of spontaneous ventilation is augmented by the anesthetist, as by squeezing the rebreathing bag.
breathing is done entirely by a mechanical device or the anesthetist squeezing the rebreathing bag.
dead space ventilation
see dead space.
high frequency ventilation
mechanical ventilation that delivers gas at more than four times the normal rate of breathing.
intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV)
a type of mechanical ventilation in which the ventilator is set to deliver a prescribed tidal volume at specified intervals and a high-flow gas system permits the patient to breathe spontaneously between cycles. The ventilator rate is set to maintain the patient's Paco2 at normal levels and is reduced gradually to zero as the patient's condition improves.
intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV)
the provision of mechanical ventilation by a machine designed to deliver breathing gas until equilibrium is established between the patient's lungs and the ventilator. IPPV machines are positive-pressure, pressure-cycled, assister-controller (pneumatic) devices.
Because of their compact size and capability of operating independently of an electrical current, the IPPV machines have the most widespread applicability in the employment of a form of treatment called intermittent positive-pressure breathing.
maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV)
the maximal volume that can be exhaled per minute by the patient breathing as rapidly and deeply as possible.
that accomplished by extrinsic means.
the total amount of gas (in liters) expelled from the lungs per minute.
mismatches of ventilation and blood flow, as in chronic obstructive lung disease, are a common cause of hypoxemia.
the ratio of air ventilation to the blood perfused. Called also VA/Q. The degree of oxygenation of the blood and the proportional excretion of CO2 are both dependent on both variables being optimal.
positive pressure ventilation
breathing without the assistance of any ventilator or mechanical device.
the amount of air moved out of (or into) the airways and alveoli over a specified time period.