The matrix X is the observed value of Z with the measurement error
In this paper, we propose the cost-sensitive feature selection problem of numerical data with measurement errors
and deal with it through considering the trade-off between test costs and misclassification costs.
Also, they are likely to be less susceptible to measurement error
than panel data, because the quantity being tracked is an average and the averaging will, nearly always, reduce the effect of measurement error
This particular source of measurement error
can hinder assessment efforts targeting both within-group and between-group comparisons (Table 1).
Phase measurement error
is supposed to be 35 degrees.
To make the rules comparable, [sigma] was chosen to produce the same output gap volatility under both rules in the absence of the ZLB and measurement error
It should be noted that the main aim of this study was not to rank or recommend a wireless indoor environment sensor but rather to quantify the measurement errors
by different sensors and to evaluate the state-of-the-art of commercially available sensors.
This could increase measurement errors
The systematic error mainly consists of three components: pipe flow modeling error, strain gauge error due to the effects of the paste, and measurement error
caused by pipe wear .
HDM and its modifications all require calculation of the ratio of [[Hb].sub.b] values at various time points compared to an initial [[Hb].sub.b] determination; however, the effect of measurement errors
on the accuracy of these volume determinations has never been adequately explored.
Some tolerance for error in wine alcohol labels is appropriate for several reasons: One reason is to allow for measurement error
, since the instruments (and perhaps their users) are not always perfectly precise.
Systematic measurement error
is much easier to find and identify than random error.