The volatility of a portfolio can be measured using standard deviation, or the

measure of dispersion of a set of data points from its mean.

Assuming those electrons are spread out randomly along our line of sight, a higher

measure of dispersion means more electrons and therefore a more distant source.

(P1) An investor seeks to find a portfolio that is closest to a given benchmark, where the idea of "closeness" is not necessarily determined by the typical tracking error, the standard deviation, but by some other desired

measure of dispersion.

It is a

measure of dispersion which "is conceptually simpler and more versatile than many competing measures" (Gries, 2008: 197).

The first is the absolute

measure of dispersion (ADSR), which is explained (in the context of unemployment) as follows: "[absolute dispersion] measures the number of persons in all regions taken together who would have to change their labour market status in order for every region to have the same percentage unemployed as currently prevails for the [population] as a whole..." (Dixon, 2006, p.

The Survey of Professional Forecasters (SPF), which is a quarterly survey of macroeconomic forecasts in the United States, provides a

measure of dispersion for forecasts of each of the macroeconomic variables included in the survey.

This provides a

measure of dispersion relative to the mean.

Finally, the interaction between global integration and geographic dispersion was calculated by multiplying the global integration index by each

measure of dispersion. Since a potential multicolinearity exist between the interaction term and each of the variables multiplied to create it, we followed the methodology developed by Jaccard, Turrisi and Wan (1990).

One would expect that the presence of the [beta] crystalline form might depend on the degree of clay dispersion, but again there is no correlation with any

measure of dispersion in Table 4.

On Model ZSE-18, ZSE-27, and ZSE-40 high-speed extruders, Leisteritz's Macromatex TSCS controls can now track pressure build-up on the screen pack and create spreadsheet and graphic reports that provide a relative

measure of dispersion quality.(As we reported in July, measuring filtration pressure rise is the basis of the new European DIN-EN Filter-Pressure-Value test for melt dispersibility of masterbatches, but the European test typically uses a single-screw extruder.) This system can also provide extra filtration for low-volume specialty production.

To obtain a

measure of dispersion, one variable, RATARE, was created by superimposing a two-dimensional grid on each board.