Table-2: Maximum Voluntary contraction
for different muscles during Salat and Exercise.2,18
The EMG recordings showed that in comparison to nonTMD cleft patients, children diagnosed with CLP and painrelated TMD have greater temporalis and masseter muscle activity at rest, reduced temporalis muscle activity during maximum voluntary contraction
, and a higher Asymmetry Index for the temporalis and masseter muscles in the rest position.
Abbreviations MVC: Maximum voluntary contraction
HPA: Hand posture analyzer HGD: Handgrip dynamometer CNS: Central nervous system PNS: Peripheral nervous system PFD: Pinch force dynamometer CHIRO: Crew's Health Investigation on Reduced Operability IBOX: Interface box MMI: Man-machine interface ISS: International Space Station ESA: European Space Agency ASI: Italian Space Agency NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration EVA: Extravehicular activities.
MVC: maximum voluntary contraction
. Predicted F20 F60 S20 S60 Kinetic-ME True F20 0.50 0.08 0.17 0.25 F60 0.49 0.09 0.21 0.21 S20 0.34 0.07 0.29 0.30 S60 0.35 0.06 0.17 0.41 Kinetic-MI True F20 0.55 0.05 0.22 0.18 F60 0.50 0.08 0.20 0.23 S20 0.44 0.05 0.28 0.22 S60 0.54 0.04 0.08 0.34
PD Correlation MFI MVC Speed r p r p r p CFI -0.24 0.25 GFI -0.23 0.27 PFI -0.13 0.52 VA 0.56 <0.01 * -0.07 0.73 TW 0.74 <0.01 * 0.28 0.19 MVC 0.16 0.45 HC Correlation MFI MVC Speed r p r p r p CFI 0.17 0.42 GFI -0.02 0.92 PFI -0.06 0.76 VA 0.38 0.06 0 0.99 TW 0.71 <0.01 * 0.18 0.40 MVC -0.14 0.51 PD, Parkinson's disease; HC, healthy control; MFI, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory; CFI, central fatigue index; PFI, peripheral fatigue index; GFI, general fatigue index; VA, activation level; TW, twitch force; MVC, maximum voluntary contraction
. * Significant correlation, p < .05.
The electromyographic data were tabulated and normalized by the maximum voluntary contraction
. The descriptive analysis (mean and standard error) was performed for each variable.
After determination of the isometric maximum voluntary contraction
(MVC), the subjects performed a trapezoid isometric muscle action of the leg extensors.
The use of small muscles to hold a load may lead to a greater percentage of maximum voluntary contraction
in these muscles than would presumably occur with use of larger muscles that are likely to be involved in holding a bag against the chest.
Signals were demeaned, rectified, amplitude normalised, down-sampled to 10 Hz root mean square values, and expressed as % maximum voluntary contraction
. EMG amplitude normalisation was carried out for each muscle using three trials of resisted isometric maximum voluntary contractions
(Szeto et al 2005a) since maximum voluntary contractions
were not significantly different between trials or groups.
To stabilize the structures that they surround, activity is continuous at low levels of maximum voluntary contraction
(MVC) to provide isometric control of neutral joint position and ultimately increase structural stiffness in mid-range not offered by the passive structures.
Subsequently, we asked the volunteers to perform isometric maximal voluntary plantar flexions on a dynamometer, while ultrasound measurements were also taken, from which we determined isometric maximum voluntary contraction
(MVIC) torque and ATS.