Autophagy acts as an endogenous mechanism protecting against phosphorus-induced vascular calcification by reducing matrix vesicle release .
Cai et al., "Phosphate-induced autophagy counteracts vascular calcification by reducing matrix vesicle release," Kidney International, vol.
In fact, recent research has shown that calcitriol accelerates matrix vesicle
formation in osteoblasts but only during the early phase of differentiation .
Notably, electron micrograph captures an osteoblast matrix vesicle
just as it initiated the exocytosis of hydroxyapatite (EDX spectrum).
Nagashima et al., "Analysis of the extracellular matrix vesicle
proteome in mineralizing osteoblasts," Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol.
Mineralization begins with HA formation in matrix vesicles
; HA crystals penetrate the matrix vesicle
membrane and elongate due to the effect of TNAP, and the crystals are then deposited between collagen fibrils.
No labeling was detected in the non-mineralized dentin, basement membrane, matrix vesicles
, or collagen fibrils.
It is linked to the membrane of matrix vesicles
via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor by means of posttranslational modification.
Proposed starting sites for calcification include matrix vesicles
derived from cells and lipoproteins in plasma or originally internalized by cells (4) as well as cholesterol (CH) (3) in tissue sections of lesions (5,6).
Although VSMC apoptosis is a major way of vascular calcification, microcalcification can also be caused by apoptotic death or the release of matrix vesicles
by macrophages .
Mature OBs release a large number of matrix vesicles
, each of which contains a large amount of calcium and is helpful in mineralization [23, 24].
(1989) to study the distribution of extracellular matrix vesicles
around bone-bonding and nonbonding glass-ceramic implants in rat tibial bone.