Variation in decapod larval morphology may be related to maternal effects
. Substantial maternal effects
have been observed in the caridean Sclerocrangon boreas (Guay et al., 2011).
The common scarcity of literature estimates for maternal effects
in sheep more than a range of ages make judgment complex, however, most findings describe that maternal permanent environmental effect reduce as time lapses post-weaning (Fischer et al., 2004).
In turn, Aguirre, Mattos, Eler, Barreto Neto, and Ferraz (2016), observed that the best fit of the data was obtained with the model that considered, besides the direct maternal and maternal permanent environmental effects, also the covariance between the direct and maternal effects
. These authors attribute the high proportions of the variance to the values of the maternal permanent environment, to the extensive farming system on pastures, in which the mothers are undergoing transitions, due to the great environmental variations.
Where [[sigma].sup.2.sub.D] and [[sigma].sup.2.sub.M] are direct and maternal additive genetic variances, respectively, and [[sigma].sub.DM] is the additive genetic covariance between direct and maternal effects
Our results confirmed that seed size had a maternal effect
on biomass allocation, with large-seeded grain crops generally have higher scaling exponents which may lead to better seedling establishment.
on offspring size: variation through early development of Chinook salmon.
Our study thus demonstrates that maternal effects
can influence species interactions within communities, and that we should consider these maternal effects
when predicting the ecological and evolutionary consequences of changing species distributions.
The particular maternal effect
of propagule size, especially egg size: patterns, models, quality of evidence and interpretations.
Model 3 included an additive maternal effect
fitted as a second random effect.
It is certainly clear that the temperature-mediated maternal effect
reported here can only be considered adaptive if selection acts differently at different incubation temperatures and this is maintained over multiple generations (Bownds et al., 2010; Burgess and Marshall, 2011).
interpopulation crosses) and the maternal effect
(ME; P vs.