There are absolute contraindications to masculinizing hormone therapy, however, including pregnancy, unstable coronary artery disease, and untreated polycythemia with a hematocrit >55%.
Patients receiving masculinizing hormone therapy should be monitored every 3 months during the first year and once or twice a year thereafter, with a focused history (including mood symptoms), physical exam (including weight and blood pressure), and labs (including complete blood count, liver function, renal function, and lipids) at each visit.
Research on some of the older compounds was hindered by their masculinizing
side effects, their association with lipid abnormalities and liver function abnormalities, and concern over their abuse potential.
While Douglas's masculinizing
model is a plausible explanation for much of what was going on during the '20s, care is warranted in extending that analysis to the country as a whole.
One suggested hypothesis was that masculinizing compounds in the effluent were affecting gonadal differentiation of the embryos, resulting in skewed sex ratios.
We therefore hypothesized that masculinizing components in the effluent were causing the male-biased broods.
Water downstream of pulp-mill operations on the Fenholloway is strongly masculinizing
, or androgenic, whereas water upstream of the plant and in a nearby river is not, Environmental Protection Agency scientists reported at a November meeting in Nashville of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC).
Further study showed that men with Kennedy's syndrome had an unusually large number of CAG repeats, which seemed to render the men slightly less sensitive to the masculinizing
effects of androgens.
The bacteria, says Rigaud, "feminize" an embryonic wood louse that is genetically male by disrupting the production or effects of masculinizing
hormones during its development.
Biology-oriented researchers point to mounting evidence linking homosexuality to a gene or genes, prenatal exposure to excessive amounts of masculinizing
or feminizing hormones, and changes in brain structure.
Finally, a series of studies now under way at the University of West Florida in Pensacola is looking at the masculinizing
effects of paper mill wastes on female fish.
The testes, in turn, produce a cocktail of masculinizing
hormones that influnce gender-related developmental path-ways throughout a man's life.