That particular masculinised model, reflected in traditional Enlightenment notions of both self-contained men and nation, reiterates a patriarchal paradigm in which they each sustain themselves through domination of usually feminised others.
These actions alone do not negate the possibility of re-instating and re-affirming traditional masculinised identity, often murderous in its rejection of the feminine.
All of the men quickly identified that their culture is a masculinised domain in which the father is the dominant family member.
In some respects the men also identified their mothers as having to take on a similar viewpoint to placate the fathers' masculinised stance.
On top of this they must then attempt to position themselves in a cultural and family heritage that is highly masculinised, whereby the father is perceived as the dominant figure.
The problem is trying to have a body image that simultaneously fits into the gay culture, the Australian heterosexual culture, and their Asian masculinised culture.
Numerous researchers (Connell, 1990; Klein, 1993; Messner, 1992) have gained significant insights into the underpinning issues surrounding sport and masculine hegemony by carrying out extensive qualitative research on men involved in masculinised sporting subcultures.
These sports were selected because they are widely regarded as being masculinised activities in Western society, and as a consequence, men dominate them in terms of participation rates.
Surf lifesaving, with its history based upon the voluntary patrolling of beaches, is perceived as being an archetypal masculinised Australian sport.