marasmic


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Related to marasmic: marasmic kwashiorkor

ma·ras·mic

(mă-raz'mik),
Relating to or suffering from marasmus.
Synonym(s): marantic
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

marasmic

adjective Referring to protein energy malnutrition (marasmus).
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

ma·ras·mic

(mă-raz'mik)
Relating to or suffering from marasmus.
Synonym(s): marantic.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

marasmus

(ma-raz'mus) [Gr. marasmos, a wasting away]
A generalized wasting and absence of subcutaneous fat caused by malnutrition; emaciation. It results from caloric deficiency secondary to acute diseases, esp. diarrheal diseases of infancy, deficiency in nutritional composition, inadequate food intake, malabsorption, child abuse, failure-to-thrive syndrome, deficiency of vitamin D, or scurvy. Synonym: athrepsia; pedatrophy; wasting See: kwashiorkor; protein-energy malnutritionmarasmic (ma-raz'mik), adjective

Symptoms

Signs include loss of muscle mass and other soft tissues and a wizened, sunken face, resembling that of an elderly person, from loss of temporal and buccal fat pads. Failure to gain weight is followed by a loss of weight. Brain and skeletal growth continues, resulting in a long body and a head too large in proportion to weight. Subcutaneous fat is minimal, the eyes are sunken, and tissue turgor is lost. The skin appears loose and sags. The infant is not active, muscles are flabby and relaxed, and the cry is weak and shrill. The absence of pitting edema of the hands and feet and of a protuberant abdomen differentiate this condition from kwashiorkor, but in marasmic kwashiorkor, features of both conditions are combined.

Treatment

Initial feedings should be small and low in calories because digestive capacity is poor and a “refeeding” syndrome can occur, marked by hypophosphatemia, congestive heart failure, respiratory distress, convulsions, coma, and death. Diluted formula or breast milk is best. The amount of calories and protein, carbohydrates, and fat should be increased gradually. The goal for protein intake is 5 g/kg of body weight per day. If diarrhea due to disaccharidase deficiency is present, a low-lactose diet is beneficial. Parenteral fluid therapy is indicated if shock or fluid and electrolyte imbalance exists.

Prognosis

Death occurs in 40% of affected children.

Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
Marasmic patients stayed significantly longer in the hospital than kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor patients (p=0.032 and p=0.001, respectively).
Characterisation of SAM patients by baseline clinical profile (N=346) Variable n (%) * Age (months) 6-12 112 (33.6) 13-24 175 (52.5) 25-36 28 (8.4) 37-60 18 (5.5) SAM syndromic classification Marasmus 111 (33.2) Kwashiorkor 141 (42.2) Marasmic kwashiorkor 82 (24.6) Oedema grade None 99 (29.6) Mild 23 (6.9) Moderate 96 (28.7) Severe 116 (34.7) Dermatosis grade None 102 (30.5) Mild 79 (23.7) Moderate 120 (35.9) Severe 33 (9.9) LRTIs Yes 67 (20.1) No 267 (79.9) Other comorbidities Yes 96 (28.7) No 238 (71.3) Critically ill on admission Yes 50 (14.9) No 284 (85.1) HIV status Positive 113 (33.8) Negative 221 (66.2) HIV/AIDS disease stage 1 31 (27.4) 2 41 (36.3) 3 32 (28.3) 4 9 (8.0) SAM = severe acute malnutrition; LRTIs = lower respiratory tract infections.
Although controls had highest detection of aflatoxins (90.9%), followed by kwashiorkor (84.6%), marasmus (81.8%) and marasmic kwashiorkor (60%) in descending order, the observed differences in rates of detection in urine were not significant (p>0.05).
The median concentration of total aflatoxins in urine was highest in kwashiorkor patients, followed by marasmic kwashiorkor, controls and marasmus in descending order (table 2).
To determine possible differences in excretion of aflatoxins in urine, the ratio of simultaneous samples of serum and urinary aflatoxin concentrations were determined in 24 patients (kwashiorkor n=6, marasmic kwashiorkor n=10, marasmus n=6) and controls (n=6).
Fifteen (88.2%) marasmus patients and 9(81.8%) marasmic kwashiorkor patients showed a history of malaria.
The mean concentrations of TNFa, IL6 and IL1 were higher in children suffering from kwashiorkor than marasmus or marasmic kwashiorkor.
Qualified medical staff including clinical officers and nurses at each of the health centres assessed the clinical nutritional status of the children, classifying them as Marasmic, Kwashiorkor or Marasmic/ Kwashiorkor.
The results showed Meteitei to have the highest prevalence of 18% for Kwashiorkor, Marasmus and Marasmic Kwashiorkor while Makunga showed the least prevalence of 4%.
According to the Wellcome Trust classification of protein energy malnutrition, 77 patients (60.1%) were of normal weight for age, 40 (31.2%) were underweight for age, 4 (3.1%) had kwashiorkor, 5 (3.9%) were marasmic and 2 (1.6%) had marasmic kwashiorkor.
The prevalence of protein energy malnutrition (kwashiorkor, marasmus and marasmic kwashiorkor) was 8.5%.