The psychometric scales used included Becks Depression Inventory II (BDI II), Revised Children Manifest Anxiety Scale
(RCMAS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI).
Reynolds & Richmond (1997) developed the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale
(CMAS) which conceptualizes the anxiety construct in a broad and complex way and it includes several components: social concerns/concentration, physiological anxiety and restlessness/hypersensitivity.
The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale
(RCMAS) is a 37-item self-report instrument designed to measure emotions and physical symptoms of anxiety in children and adolescents aged between 6 and 19 years.
Current methods for assessing anxiety among pediatric pain patients consist of using either broadband measures of psychopathology symptoms that include one or more anxiety-related subscales, or narrow-band anxiety measures, such as the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) , Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale
(RCMAS) , or the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) .
Spence created the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale
(Taylor, 1953) and in the 1970s, she was a cocreator of the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (Spence & Helmreich, 1972).
The translated and adapted Urdu version (Ahmad and Mansoor 2011) of Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale
Second Edition (RCMAS-2; Reynolds andRichmond 2008) was used to estimate the level of anxiety among students.
Correlations of the STAI have been conducted with other measures of anxiety such as the Anxiety Scale Questionnaire and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale
. Evidence of concurrent validity of these scales with the STAI has been found to range from .70 to .85 in the samples of college students (Spielberger, 1985).
Structured diagnostic measures used in the study included the ADIS (Albano& Silverman, 1996), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (Spence, 1998), The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale
(Reynolds & Richmond, 1978), and Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (Schniering& Rapee, 2002).
The revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale
(Reynolds & Richmond, 1997) measures excessive worry/sensitivity, social worries and concentration.
Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate feasibility and cross-cultural sensitivity of two well-established tools that require few resources to administer--the Human Figure Drawing (Koppitz 1968) and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale
(Reynolds & Richmond, 1978)--as a means to efficiently and effectively screen for overall emotional well-being of children living in out-of-home care.
The focus of the present research is reliability analysis of Short Form of Total Anxiety of Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale
(RCMAS-2; Reynolds and Richmond, 2008).
Researchers administered three assessments to participants in the study: Children's Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs, 1983), Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale
(RCMAS; Reynolds & Richmond, 1978), and Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS; Hewitt, Flett, & Turnbull, 1994).