Chelicerates and mandibulates
are two subgroups of arthropods.
Birds that mandibulate
the fruit before ingesting it were considered "mandibulate
"; they used their beaks to macerate the pulp, and afterwards swallowed either the entire pulp or just the juice, discarding the rest of the fruit with its seeds.
While this interpretation has been challenged by Grimaldi and Engel (2005) as being perhaps attributable to mites, repeated by others (Nel et al., 2007), there are significant factual problems with asserting a mite as a causal agent, as mites are an order-of-magnitude smaller in size, even during the Pennsylvanian, and all of the internal features of the gall, including barrel-shaped coprolites, mandibulate
bite marks, exit hole plugs, and nutritive tissue formation in the host plant strongly suggest a holometabolan galler (Labandeira and Phillips, 1996, 2002).
They are similar in function to the antennae of mandibulate
arthropods that detect airborne chemicals (Kaissling 1987; Itagaki & Hildebrand 1990), except that pectines are ground-directed and respond to substrate-borne chemicals.
Phylum 6 Uniramia (Mandibulata, Mandibulates
Moreover, interspecific competition occurred far more frequently between sap-feeding species such as aphids and scale insects than between mandibulate
folivores like lepidopterans and beetles, a finding which has been previously reported (Lawton and Strong 1981, Karban 1986, Denno and Roderick 1992).