continuity may be lost as a result of trauma, tumor, or inflammation.
Conclusion: The intra oral approach for mandibular
angle fracture management is an effective and comparatively better technique as compare to the extra oral approach.
Patients with a full complement of teeth up to erupted second permanent molars with moderate crowding in the maxillary and/or mandibular
arch, with skeletal Class I jaw base relation treated with non-extraction treatment plan were included in the study.
We describe how VSP can be used to plan SSO that removes mandibular
lesions while preserving the entirety of mandibular
cortical bone and minimizing the risk of injury to adjacent vital structures.
Custodio, "Considerations of mandibular
angle fractures during and after surgery for removal of third molars: a review of the literature," Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol.
 compared the stability between the total mandibular
subapical osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSO) for correction of class II subjects.
CBCT scans having permanent mandibular
first molars both males and females of Pakistani origin aged 16-60 years and mature roots with no root canal fillings were included.
On each radiograph the mandibular
ridge height (upto inferior boundary of mental foramen a1) was taken by measuring the distance from the lower border of the mandible to the inferior edge of the mental foramen.
Lateral cephalometric analysis indicated mild skeletal Class III relationship with maxillary retrusion, optimum mandibular
plane angle and normal upper and lower incisor positions (Table 1).
notch is clinically significant for surgical and reconstructive procedures, as it assists maxillofacial surgeons in their surgical approach and management within this region (Clauser et al., 1995; Mintz et al., 1998; Mohammad et al.).
Although IANB technique is most widely used for mandibular
molars before endodontic treatment, it has higher failure rate and success rate are even lower when treating the mandibular
posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis.