hyperventilation

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hyperventilation

 [hi″per-ven″tĭ-la´shun]
abnormally fast and deep breathing, the result of either an emotional state or a physiological condition. Emotional causes include acute anxiety and emotional tension, such as in nervous, anxious patients who may have other functional disturbances related to emotional problems. Physiological causes include a rapid decrease in intracranial pressure, other neurologic problems, and metabolic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular conditions. More prolonged hyperventilation may be caused by certain disorders of the central nervous system, or by drugs that increase the sensitivity of the respiratory centers (such as high concentrations of salicylates). Transient respiratory alkalosis commonly occurs when a person is hyperventilating. Iatrogenic hyperventilation may be seen in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

It was formerly considered standard practice to hyperventilate patients following severe head injuries. However, now practice guidelines published by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses note that current research does not conclusively support this practice, and they urge judiciousness in its use. The Cochrane review is another study that notes that more clinical trials are required to determine the efficacy of hyperventilation in treatment of head trauma.

Symptoms of hyperventilation in the anxious patient include “faintness” or impaired consciousness without actual loss of consciousness. At the outset the patient may feel a tightness of the chest, a sensation of smothering, and some degree of apprehension. Other symptoms may be related to the heart and digestive tract, such as palpitation or pounding of the heart, fullness in the throat, and pain over the stomach region. In prolonged attacks the patient may exhibit tetany with muscular spasm of the hands and feet, and perioral numbness.

Short-term immediate treatment consists of having the patient slow the rate of breathing. Determining the underlying physical or emotional cause is necessary; the type of treatment depends on the cause. Medication, stress reduction measures, and controlled breathing exercises will control hyperventilation. Health care providers are no longer advised to use the technique of rebreathing into a paper bag, because of the danger of hypoxia.
hyperventilation syndrome a complex of symptoms that accompany hypocapnia caused by hyperventilation, including palpitation, a feeling of shortness of breath or air hunger, lightheadedness or giddiness, profuse perspiration, and tingling sensations in the fingertips, face, or toes. Prolonged overbreathing may result in vasomotor collapse and loss of consciousness. Hyperventilation that is unrecognized by the patient is a common cause of the symptoms associated with chronic anxiety or panic attacks.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

hy·per·ven·ti·la·tion

(hī'pĕr-ven'ti-lā'shŭn),
Increased alveolar ventilation relative to metabolic carbon dioxide production, so that alveolar carbon dioxide pressure decreases to below normal.
Synonym(s): overventilation
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

hyperventilation

(hī′pər-vĕn′tl-ā′shən)
n.
Abnormally fast or deep respiration, which results in the loss of carbon dioxide from the blood, thereby causing a fall in blood pressure, tingling of the extremities, and sometimes fainting.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

hyperventilation

Pulmonology An ↑ in respiratory frequency or volume Effect ↓ CO2, intracranial pressure Physiology pH-mediated cerebrovascular constriction; hypocarbia may restore cerebral auroregulation, alkalinze CSF, ↑ perfusion of ischemic brain tissue Complications Cerebral hypoxia, inverse steal, rebound intracranial HTN, myocardial ischemia
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hy·per·ven·ti·la·tion

(hī'pĕr-ven'ti-lā'shŭn)
Increased alveolar ventilation relative to metabolic carbon dioxide production, so that alveolar carbon dioxide pressure decreases to below normal.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

hyperventilation

Unusually or abnormally deep or rapid breathing. This is most commonly the result of strenuous exercise but the term is more often applied to a rate and depth of breathing inappropriate to the needs of the body. This results in excessive loss of carbon dioxide from the blood and sometimes a consequent spasm of the muscles of the forearms and calves. Hyperventilation can, rarely, be a feature of BRAIN DAMAGE, poisoning, fever or THYROTOXICOSIS.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

hyperventilation

an increase in air inhalation into the lungs resulting from an increase in the depth or rate of breathing. This causes a reduction of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, leading to dizziness and, if continued, to loss of consciousness.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Hyperventilation

Rapid, deep breathing, possibly exceeding 40 breaths/minute. The most common cause is anxiety, although fever, aspirin overdose, serious infections, stroke, or other diseases of the brain or nervous system.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

hy·per·ven·ti·la·tion

(hī'pĕr-ven'ti-lā'shŭn)
Increased alveolar ventilation relative to metabolic carbon dioxide production.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
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