For all captured bats, we determined sex and female reproductive condition by abdominal palpation and mammae
(24.) "There were also more immediate and pressing political trends that prompted Linnaeus to focus scientific attention on the mammae. Linnaeus venerated the maternal breast at a time when doctors and politicians had begun to extol the virtues of mother's milk [...] Linnaeus was involved in the struggle against wet nursing, a struggle which emerged alongside and in step with political realignments undermining women's public power and attaching a new value to women's domestic roles" (SCHIEBINGER, 1994, p.
Thus, within Linnaeus terminology, a female character (the lactating mammae) ties humans to brutes, while a traditional male character (reason) marks our separateness from brutes" (SCHIEBINGER, 1994, p.
Ages were catagorized as adult, subadult, juvenile, and pup based on molting pattern (adult versus subadult), size/mass (subadult versus juvenile), and attachment to mammae
(juvenile versus pup).
The nonmolecular characters that we scored for these 50 terminal taxa (defined by Voss and Jansa, 2009: appendix 3) include 39 from the integument (rhinarium, pelage, manus, pes, mammae
, pouch, cloaca, tail, etc), 49 from the cranium and mandible (foramina, processes, sutures, etc), and 37 from the dentition (occlusal morphology, eruption sequences); additionally we scored four characters representing chromosomal fission/fusion events from published karyotypic studies.
Captured animals were identified to species, noted as new or recaptured, weighted, sex was determined, and their reproductive condition ascertained (males were reproductively active if testes were scrotal, and females were reproductively active if the vagina was perforate, mammae
were enlarged, or they were obviously pregnant).
To qualify for inclusion, specimens were composed of either skull with teeth plus skin or skin only (i.e., no skull available for examination) with visible mammae
or lateral flank glands.
In females, uteri were inspected for the presence of fetuses or placental scars; number, location, and crown-rump length of fetuses were recorded, if present; and mammae
were examined for signs of recent lactation.
Gender was determined by multiple external characteristics, including genitalia and mammae
, to reduce the error in determining sex of individuals without necropsy (Witmer et al., 1996).
Another female from the same area had enlarged mammae
when it was collected on 5 March.