In none of the cases, migration of nail or malunion
The bony anatomy of clavicular malunions
. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2003;12:173-8.
In terms of malunion
and nonunion rates, the main cause appears to be inability to obtain anatomic reductions intraoperatively.
Five tissue samples were found to achieve bone union without serious deformities (Figure 5(b)), while one sample had a loosed implant with some degree of shortening and malunion
. Micro-CT examinations revealed united bone gaps and good bone remodeling in the BG group (Figure 5(c)), with good callus formation and continuous femoral cortex.
The secondary cubitus varus malunion
does not always imply benign lesion; it may present long-term symptoms, but these can be solved with surgery.
This would in turn facilitate a quicker return to functionality without secondary consequences, such as nonunion, malunion
, coracohumeral impingement or shoulder instability.
is the most common complication following distal radius fracture, which can occur in approximately 23% non-surgical treated and in about 11% surgical treated patients.
The radionuclide bone scan with 185 MBq (5 mCi) Tc-99m MDP was performed for an evaluation of suspicious malunion
fracture, bone infection, or preexisting medical conditions because metabolic disorders and bone diseases may make a child's bones more vulnerable to fracture .
Benefits of surgical treatment of these injuries are undisputable as stated by Marvin Tile  He pointed out that internal fixation could prevent instability and malunion
of pelvic ring and also result in lower incidence of complications such as deep vein thrombosis, pneumonia, urinary infections, decubitus ulcers etc.
loose screws) usually leads to infection and malunion
. Infection rate is also shown to be less with intra-oral approach.
Different techniques and devices have been described by many authors concerning the evaluation and treatment of zygomatic arch fractures.3 Besides, it is important to select the adequate technique and instrument in treatment of zygomatic arch fracture because inadequate stabilization and reduction of zygomatic arch may result in malunion
or asymetry.1,8 In the present study, we used extraction forceps for reduction of depressed zygomatic arch fracture by upper buccal sulcus approach as closed reduction due to minimal displacement with bone contact at all fracture lines (Class II).
Early diagnosis and treatment of pisiform fracture is important as a missed diagnosis or delayed treatment may result in malunion
or non-union resulting in chronic pain, weakness of grip and limitation of movement (7,8).