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Beneficial effects of grape seed extract on malondialdehyde-modified LDL
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Lopes-Virella and her colleagues measured the levels of oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), advanced glycated end product LDL (AGE-LDL), and malondialdehyde-modified LDL
(MDA-LDL) in immune complexes that were isolated from the baseline serum samples, and compared those levels with the ultrasound measurements at both time points.
Ingestion of a tea rich in cathechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL
However, assays based on sandwich ELISAs have been developed mainly for oxLDL and its isoform, malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL), by several groups (15,32,33,48,49).
 Nonstandard abbreviafions: oxLDL, oxidized LDL; gLDL, glycated LDL; acLDL, acetylated LDL; ApoB, apolipoprotein B; cLDL, carbamylated LDL; nLDL, native LDL; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; BSA, bovine serum albumin; PBS, phosphate-buttered saline; PBS-E, PBS with EDTA; SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; TC, total cholesterol; and MDA-LDL, malondialdehyde-modified LDL.
We previously reported that malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) is distributed to small dense LDL fractions by density gradient ultracentrifugation (7).
 Nonstandard abbreviations: IDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein; TG, triglyceride; HDL-C, HDL-cholesterol; MDA-LDL, malondialdehyde-modified LDL; apo A-1 and B, apolipoprotein A-1 and B; DM, diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; TC, total cholesterol; TBARS, 2-thiobarbituric acidreactive substances; and CHD, coronary heart disease.
has been shown to stimulate formation of autoantibodies, and immune complexes of LDL aggregates are efficiently internalized by macrophages via Fc receptors, further promoting cholesterol accumulation.