These subtle yet important signs of schizophrenia are virtually nonexistent in malingered psychosis and are instead replaced by the perceived bizarreness of schizophrenia's positive symptoms (Resnick, 1984; Resnick & Knoll, 2005).
Caldwell (2009) averred that assessment for inconsistency is the hallmark of malingering detection, though others note that inconsistency of responses or response style does not necessarily indicate malingered psychosis (Hall & Poirier, 2000; Rogers, 2008a).
Though there are numerous psychometric tools that can determine the degree of honest responding, four are common to forensics practice: the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 2007); the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS; Widows & Smith, 2007); the Miller-Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-Fast; Miller, 2001, 2005); and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS-2, 2nd ed.; Rogers et ah, 2010).
(86) Indeed, courts have consistently pointed to the supposed ease and likelihood of feigning amnesia, as well as the difficulty of detecting it, as justification for finding allegedly amnesic defendants CST.87 For example, the Supreme Court of Alaska held that "[t]he potential for fraudulent allegations of memory loss is so great that we would for this reason alone be reluctant to follow [sic] amnesia as a ground for a finding of incompetency even if we were otherwise inclined to do so." (88) Potentially exacerbating this problem is the fact that some expert testimony is based on patient interviews alone, which makes it very difficult to determine whether the amnesia claims are malingered. (89)
Distinguishing Genuine from Malingered Amnesia Claims
Identification of malingered head injury on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised.
The use of psychological tests to identify malingered symptoms of mental disorder.
Source: Reference 1 Table 2 Characteristics of amnesia in factitious disorder and malingering Factitious amnesia * Intentional feigning of signs and symptoms * Association with Cluster B personality disorders * Medical or psychiatric illness * Diagnosed on axis I * Motivated to assume sick role--unconscious drive * Referral to health professional * Clinician's outlook * "Suffering" Malingered
amnesia * Intentional feigning of signs and symptoms * Possible antisocial personality disorder * Meeting personal needs * An ICD-9 V code; not a disorder * Motivated by external incentives--conscious drive * May involve legal system * Clinician's outlook * "Liar" Source: Reference 6 Table 3 DSM-5 criteria for conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) A.
To detect malingered psychosis, one must first understand how true psychotic symptoms manifest.
Despite the high prevalence of malingered behaviors in the ER, no single test has been validated in such a setting.
Effects of coaching on malingered motor function profiles.
The detection of malingered post-traumatic stress disorder.