malignant cell


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Related to malignant cell: cancer cell

malignant cell

A cell that has undergone malignant transformation—i.e., is in a state of permanent proliferation and capable of metastasis.

Phenotypic changes in malignant cells
General changes
• Decreased intercellular adhesion;
• Electrical repulsion (due to a loss of anchorage dependence);
• Decreased intracellular K+ and Ca2+;
• Aneuploidy;
• Loss of response to control by the usual cytokines and mitogens;
• Ectopic hormone production;
• Use of aberrant metabolic pathways;
• Biochemical convergence—cells lose features of differentiation and organ-specific features (e.g., microvilli);
• Desmosomes, intermediate filaments.

Cytopathologic changes
• Nucleolar margination (a sign of rapid growth);
• Cytologic atypia;
• Nuclear irregularity;
• Hyperchromasia;
• High nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio;
• Swelling of mitochondria and flooding of the mitochondrial matrix.

Other features
• Altered growth parameters and cell behaviour;
• Cell surface alterations;
• Loss of actin myofilaments;
• Increased transforming growth factor release;
• Increased protease secretion;
• Altered gene transcription;
• Immortalisation of cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
Another effect of the malignant rewiring of the cell has to do with its ability to quench the relatively high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated within malignant cells. For example, upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) leads to generation of the ROS-quenching antioxidant glutathione.
When they did this, the malignant cells returned to their disorganized, cancerous appearance, negating the effects of compression and demonstrating the importance of cell-to-cell communication in organized structure formation.
In laboratory experiemnts, the gold-iron oxide nanoparticle combination successfully targeted the cancer cells and released the anti-cancer drugs into the malignant cells, killing the cells in up to 80 percent of cases.
To encourage those cells to zero in on the malignant cells, they concocted a cocktail of the harvested dendritic cells and appropriate tumor peptides.
The blood vessels surrounding a tumor also provide malignant cells with a path to the bloodstream.
Immunohistochemistry of pleural fluid cells helps in identifying malignant cells. Here monoclonal antibodies are used against antigens which are unique to benign mesothelial cells, adenocarcinoma cells, malignant mesothelial cells etc.
Slides were evaluated as being negative or positive for malignant cells. Biological materials were divided into three groups: MPE with malignant cells (30, group I), effusions from patients with malignancy but without malignant cells in effusions (21, group II), and nonmalignant pleural effusions (25, group III).
IHC of malignant cells was interpreted as positive for pancytokeratin and PAX8 and negative for TTF-1, CD20, and CD3 (Figures 3(b), 3(c), and 3(d)).
A breakthrough study of sick mice conducted at the Technion institute has finally revealed that cancer patients relapse because the body actually begins fighting in favor of the malignant cells.
(1) Targeting PD-1 is thought to help the patient's immune system recognize malignant cells and subsequently act on them.
In the absence of cell-surface markers to distinguish malignant from benign T cells in the lesion, the team used high throughput screening of the T-cell receptor-beta gene to quantify malignant cells and monitor response to therapy.

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