malignant cell

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Related to malignant cell: cancer cell

malignant cell

A cell that has undergone malignant transformation—i.e., is in a state of permanent proliferation and capable of metastasis.

Phenotypic changes in malignant cells
General changes
• Decreased intercellular adhesion;
• Electrical repulsion (due to a loss of anchorage dependence);
• Decreased intracellular K+ and Ca2+;
• Aneuploidy;
• Loss of response to control by the usual cytokines and mitogens;
• Ectopic hormone production;
• Use of aberrant metabolic pathways;
• Biochemical convergence—cells lose features of differentiation and organ-specific features (e.g., microvilli);
• Desmosomes, intermediate filaments.

Cytopathologic changes
• Nucleolar margination (a sign of rapid growth);
• Cytologic atypia;
• Nuclear irregularity;
• Hyperchromasia;
• High nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio;
• Swelling of mitochondria and flooding of the mitochondrial matrix.

Other features
• Altered growth parameters and cell behaviour;
• Cell surface alterations;
• Loss of actin myofilaments;
• Increased transforming growth factor release;
• Increased protease secretion;
• Altered gene transcription;
• Immortalisation of cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
In laboratory experiemnts, the gold-iron oxide nanoparticle combination successfully targeted the cancer cells and released the anti-cancer drugs into the malignant cells, killing the cells in up to 80 percent of cases.
Schadendorf believes that some malignant cells will continue to hide from the immune system, even when confronted with a souped-up solution of dendritic cells.
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When asked to describe their method for determining the percentage of malignant cells in a tissue section, the vast majority of laboratories reported using pathologist estimation.
Expression of RLIP76 was found to be greater in malignant cells than in nonmalignant cells.
The technology identifies a cancer marker known as RECAF, which is found on malignant cells from a variety of cancer types but is absent in most normal or benign cells.
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Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that the malignant cells were kappa-restricted plasma cells, confirming the diagnosis of plasma cell malignancy.
The aspirate showed malignant cells characterized by moderate to abundant basophilic vacuolated cytoplasm, round to irregular nuclei, dispersed chromatin, and prominent macronucleoli.
Tustin, CA) has patented a method for measuring the effectiveness of therapy intended to kill malignant cells in vivo in a mammal, comprising the steps of obtaining monoclonal antibody that is specific to an internal cellular component of the mammal but not to external cellular components, wherein the monoclonal antibody is labeled; contacting the labeled antibody with tissue of a mammal that has received therapy to kill malignant cells in vivo, and determining the effectiveness of the therapy by measuring the binding of the labeled antibody to the internal cellular component.
The mechanism fits into the handle of a scalpel and can distinguish between healthy and malignant cells.
One standard approach to curing cancer is to kill off malignant cells, and doctors consider their treatment a success when no cancerous cells remain.