malic acid


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cycle

 [si´k'l]
a succession or recurring series of events.
cardiac cycle a complete cardiac movement, or heart beat, including systole, diastole, and the intervening pause.
Cardiac cycle. From Applegate, 2000.
cell cycle the cycle of biochemical and morphological events occurring in a reproducing cell population; it consists of the S phase, occurring toward the end of interphase, in which DNA is synthesized; the G2 phase, a relatively quiescent period; the M phase, consisting of the four phases of mitosis; and the G1 phase of interphase, which lasts until the S phase of the next cycle.
citric acid cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle.
estrous cycle the recurring periods of estrus in adult females of most mammalian species and the correlated changes in the reproductive tract from one period to another.
hair cycle the successive phases of the production and then loss of hair, consisting of anagen, catagen, and telogen.
menstrual cycle see menstrual cycle.
ovarian cycle the sequence of physiologic changes in the ovary involved in ovulation; see also ovulation and reproduction.
reproductive cycle the cycle of physiologic changes in the reproductive organs, from the time of fertilization of the ovum through gestation and childbirth; see also reproduction.
sex cycle (sexual cycle)
1. the physiologic changes that recur regularly in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant female mammals.
2. the period of sexual reproduction in an organism that also reproduces asexually.
tricarboxylic acid cycle the cyclic metabolic mechanism by which the complete oxidation of the acetyl portion of acetyl-coenzyme A is effected; the process is the chief source of mammalian energy, during which carbon chains of sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids are metabolized to yield carbon dioxide, water, and high-energy phosphate bonds. Called also citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle, and TCA cycle.
 Central pathways of metabolism: How the body produces energy from the energy-containing nutrients using the tricarboxylic acid cycle. From Davis and Sherer, 1994.
urea cycle a cyclic series of reactions that produce urea; it is a major route for removal of the ammonia produced in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver and kidney.

mal·ic ac·id

(mal'ik as'id),
Hydroxysuccinic acid; found in apples and various other tart fruits; an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the glyoxylate cycle, and in the malate-aspartate shuttle system.

mal·ic ac·id

(mal'ik as'id)
Hydroxysuccinic acid; found in apples and various other tart fruits; an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the glyoxylate cycle, and in a shuttle system.

malic acid

A drug used to clean external wounds and ulcers and remove dead tissue. A brand name is Aserbine.
Malic acidclick for a larger image
Fig. 215 Malic acid . Molecular structure.

malic acid

or

malate

a four-carbon organic acid which is an intermediate step in the KREBS CYCLE, formed by the HYDROLYSIS of fumaric acid (see Fig. 215 ). Malic acid is also important in C4 PLANTS (such as sugar cane), in which carbon is ‘captured’ from CO2 to form malic acid and other C4 acids in MESOPHYLL cells, before being transferred to the CALVIN CYCLE taking place in the CHLOROPLASTS of special cells nearby. see KRANZ ANATOMY.
References in periodicals archive ?
- The beverages segment accounted for the largest malic acid market share and is estimated to register a CAGR of 4.6% over the projected period owing to rise in consumption of liquid and powdered beverages
The TTA (% malic acid) of fruits presented differences by thermal level in the global section (p <0.001); however, in sections from 47 to 72 dad and from 72 to 119 dad, parallelism was observed, in this way, they have similar patterns in terms of TTA values (% malic acid), and in section from 47 to 103 dad, TTA values are higher (% malic acid) for 2170 masl with the lowest RH and rainfall present at this thermal level, which would indicate lower acceptance by the final consumer (MATIAS et al., 2014b).
The nature of the band of valence vibrations (vON) in the IR spectra of potato starch (Figure 1(a)) and modified starch (Figure 1(b)) is a reliable confirmation of positive result of acylation reaction of starch by malic acid chloride.
(1) Oxalic acid; (2) citric acid; (3) malic acid; (4) succinic acid; (5) lactic acid; (6) acetic acid; (7) unknown.
We also observed another fragmentation pattern by analysing malic acid, which gave a main product ion 115 and 71.
Our findings are in agreement to Muhammad and Bahnas (2009) who supplemented malic acid to low protein low energy diet and reported higher body weight gain price and economical efficiency in Japanese quails.
The high acidity is a common link, but Chablis, made from Chardonnay, is much fuller, far more savoury and has a slight creaminess that develops with the transformation of its high level of tart malic acid into softer lactic acid.
In the wine industry, common tests such as acetic acid, ammonia, G+F, malic acid, NOPA and total sulfite can be run.
Snacking on strawberries also is helpful, as they contain malic acid, which acts as a natural astringent to remove surface discoloration.
For instance, German Riesling has higher amounts of malic acid. When Stone modified the structure of apple juice concentrate by adding more malic acid, the result was aromatically reminiscent of a crisp, green apple-tinged Mosel Riesling.
For comparison, each of 200 mL of distilled water, 1% commercial humic acid, 1 mM citric acid, 1 mM malic acid, and 1 mL lactic acid was also mixed with 0.46 NRP.