Failure of a structure that typically follows a caudally directed course during development (for example, testis) to descend or to follow the normal course.
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The CT findings excluded urogenital anomalies such as renal agenesis or malformation that are occasionally combined with testicular maldescent and ectopy.
Animal toxicology studies and human epidemiology studies have shown that disruption of androgen action at this time can have irreversible consequences at birth, including testis maldescent (cryptorchidism) and penile malformations where the urethral opening is placed on the underside of the penis (hypospadias).
In patients with congenital uterine, anomalies ovarian malposition (ovarian maldescent) are more common.
(3,10) The distinction between agenesis and maldescent is critical, as orchidopexy should be performed in all patients with undescended testes.
Risk factors for testicular cancer include cryptorchidism (testicular maldescent), carcinoma in situ (intratubular germ cell neoplasia), history of testicular cancer or extragonadal germ cell tumor, family history, HIV infection, Down syndrome, and testicular trauma.
There is also increased incidence of ovarian maldescent in females with Mullerian duct anomalies who may present with atypical abdominal pain when ovaries are located within the abdomen [2].
Unilateral ovarian agenesis and fallopian tube maldescent. Pediatr Surg Int 2001; 17: 228-9
This anomaly is also called "testicular pseudo duplication", "unilateral double testis" or "transverse aberrant testicular maldescent".
The 2 most common anomalies associated with polyorchidism are maldescent (40%) of either the supernumerary testis or the ipsilateral (more normal) testis and indirect inguinal hernia (30%).
Maldescent during early embryologic development may also leave aberrant thyroid and parathyroid tissues within a normally placed mediastinal thymus.