The hostile behavior of reactively aggressive children is more like inappropriate social responses due to emotional regulation and social cognition problems, which renders these children at risk for peer rejection and psychosocial maladjustment (Haynie et al., 2001).
Aggression, Victimization, and Psychological Maladjustment
On the basis of previous research (for example, Austin & Joseph, 1996; Kochenderfer & Ladd, 1996; Natvig et al., 2001), it was hypothesized that emotional aggression indicates higher peer victimization and that the victimization experience, in turn, leads to psychological maladjustment such as depression, loneliness, and anxiety.
Besides, the present study focused primarily on the internalizing aspects of maladjustment associated with aggression and victimization.
In providing a comprehensive analysis of the relationships between instrumental and emotional aggression, bullying, peer victimization, and psychological maladjustment, this study contributes to the existing knowledge base and promotes the design and implementation of more evidence-based and effective school bullying prevention programs.
Twenty years' research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: A meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies.
Today, many women face these problems alone because alongside the increase in the number of women in the labour force, there is an equally large increase in the divorce rate, which indicates zone B and maladjustment. In 1910, for example, there was one divorce for every ten marriages; and although the divorce rate had started to level off in the 1980s, in 1987 there was one divorce for every two marriages (US Bureau of the Census, 1989).
The resulting periods of maladjustment can be long and entail a good deal of untold human suffering until the prerequisite social adjustment takes place.
Consequently, whereas it might be argued that adjustment existed prior to 1929, as in point (a) of Figure 1, the ensuing "Depression Decade" designated a period of long-term maladjustment. The adjustment which ultimately took place entailed and required an overall response in many aspects of non-material culture.
Might not the Keynesian example serve to indicate a future path for humankind in resolving, or at least shortening, the periods of maladjustment endemic to cultural lags?
How then in the interim, until such knowledge is forthcoming, can we synchronize better the dynamics of culture evolution and mitigate the problems of cultural lag and periods of social maladjustment? How then in a period of a pre-paradigmatic social DNA, can we formulate a process through which such necessary instrumental knowledge might be nurtured, advanced and applied?