Philip morris toxicological experiments with fresh sidestream smoke: More toxic than mainstream smoke
. Tob Control 2005;14:396.404.
The dissolved metals in the form of smoke condensate from mainstream smoke
of cigarettes were measured.
A previous pesticide study conducted with filtered tobacco cigarettes had positively identified the recovery of pesticides in the mainstream smoke
to range from 2 to 16% .
SHS exposure results from the involuntary inhalation of sidestream and exhaled mainstream smoke
. In contrast, THS exposure results from the involuntary inhalation, ingestion, or dermal uptake of THS pollutants in the air, in dust, and on surfaces.
The particles of SHS tend to be smaller, and therefore stay airborne longer than mainstream smoke
. This also results in the particles being distributed rapidly and evenly by convection throughout any enclosed space (HHS, 2006; Woodward & Al-Delaimy, 1999).
This type of smoke contains more toxins and nicotine than mainstream smoke
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the combination of two forms of smoke from burning tobacco products: sidestream smoke, or smoke that is emitted between the puffs of a burning cigarette, pipe or cigar; and mainstream smoke
, or the smoke that is exhaled by the smoker.
TOBACCO smoke is made up of "mainstream smoke
" from the filter end of a cigarette and "sidestream smoke" from the burning tip.
Many toxic gases are present in higher concentrations in sidestream than in mainstream smoke
Everett Koop issued a report concluding that the cancer risks of smoking could "extend to those who inhale tobacco smoke emitted into the air." (325) Noting that sidestream smoke was "qualitatively similar to the mainstream smoke
inhaled by the active smoker," the report concluded that "nonsmokers are exposed to levels of environmental tobacco smoke that would be expected to generate a lung cancer risk." (326) Adopting a weight-of-the-evidence approach, and drawing upon both the Hirayama and Garfinkel studies, the report declared that "[t]he relative abundance of data reviewed....
ENVIRONMENTAL tobacco smoke (ETS) - includes sidestream smoke, from the burning tip of a cigarette, and mainstream smoke
which is inhaled and then exhaled by the smoker.
Reynolds Tobacco Company where, by year-end 1954, he had initiated its research program on the composition, control and modification of cigarette mainstream smoke
. He conducted the research for more than a decade and directed it thereafter until retirement.