Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the root mean squared error (RMSE) of the AOAs, delays, and complex propagation factor

magnitude estimation versus different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs).

The important objectives of EEW systems are event detection and location,

magnitude estimation, peak ground motion prediction at the target site, and alert notification [17].

Voltage

Magnitude Estimation. As the first case, the voltage estimation using BP, PSO, SFLA, and GA is shown in Figures 5, 6, 7, and 8, respectively, as the number of neurons is increased from 1 to 60.

Forecast and warning systems for earthquakes and tsunamis have already been established and operated, but there is demand to improve the accuracy of epicenter analysis and

magnitude estimation.

A robust input database is essential in identifying reliable regression functions for

magnitude estimation using a statistical approach.

The system should employ an appropriate number and type of sensors to ensure reliable detection, location and

magnitude estimation of seismic events of magnitude -1 local magnitude (ML) and above.

The shape of the response function using a

magnitude estimation response methods is generally best described by a power function, R = [alpha]x[n.sup.[beta]] with an exponent [beta] smaller than 1 (Izard & Dehaene, 2008; see also Siegler & Opfer, 2003).

- To prepare a long list of appropriate modernisation projects and sub-projects that could be implemented in the oil refineries together with an order of

magnitude estimation of the investment costs;

A

magnitude estimation task was chosen as the means for participants to consume sugar (i.e., sugar water), where the experimental task had participants focus on estimating the concentrations of the various solutions rather than attending to the consumption of sugar, thereby minimizing demand characteristics.

Cognitive predictors of arithmetic in Grade 6 include language (vocabulary), line estimation,

magnitude estimation (symbolic and nonsymbolic), and working memory.

The short-time spectral

magnitude estimation of [X.sub.k] can be expressed in a form of [[??].sub.k] = G(k)x[Y.sub.k], where the gain function G(k) = G([[xi].sub.k],[[gamma].sub.k]) = [[??].sub.k] /[Y.sub.k] are interpreted as the a priori and a posteriori SNRs, respectively.

Initial lightcurve analysis was performed using Astrometrica (3) by manually extracting the

magnitude estimation for each image using the CMC-14 catalogue.