mad cow disease


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Related to mad cow disease: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

encephalopathy

 [en-sef″ah-lop´ah-the]
any degenerative disease of the brain.
AIDS encephalopathy HIV encephalopathy.
anoxic encephalopathy hypoxic encephalopathy.
biliary encephalopathy (bilirubin encephalopathy) kernicterus.
bovine spongiform encephalopathy a prion disease of adult cattle in the British Isles with neurologic symptoms. It is transmitted by feed containing protein in the form of meat and bone meal derived from infected animals. The etiologic agent is also the cause of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Called also mad cow disease.
boxer's encephalopathy (boxer's traumatic encephalopathy) a syndrome due to cumulative head blows absorbed in the boxing ring, characterized by slowing of mental function, occasional bouts of confusion, and scattered memory loss. It may progress to the more serious boxer's dementia. See also postconcussional syndrome.
dialysis encephalopathy a degenerative disease of the brain associated with longterm use of hemodialysis, marked by speech disorders and constant myoclonic jerks, progressing to global dementia.
hepatic encephalopathy a condition, usually occurring secondary to advanced liver disease, marked by disturbances of consciousness that may progress to deep coma (hepatic coma), psychiatric changes of varying degree, flapping tremor, and fetor hepaticus.
HIV encephalopathy (HIV-related encephalopathy) a progressive primary encephalopathy caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus type I, manifested by a variety of cognitive, motor, and behavioral abnormalities. Called also AIDS encephalopathy.
hypernatremic encephalopathy a severe hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by the hyperosmolarity accompanying hypernatremia and dehydration.
hypertensive encephalopathy a complex of cerebral phenomena such as headache, convulsions, and coma that occur in the course of malignant hypertension.
hypoxic encephalopathy encephalopathy caused by hypoxia from either decreased rate of blood flow or decreased oxygen content of arterial blood; mild cases cause temporary intellectual, visual, and motor disturbances, and severe cases can cause permanent brain damage within five minutes. Called also anoxic encephalopathy.
lead encephalopathy brain disease caused by lead poisoning.
mitochondrial encephalopathy encephalopathy associated with mitochondrial abnormalities, such as melas syndrome and merrf syndrome.
portal-systemic encephalopathy (portasystemic encephalopathy) hepatic encephalopathy.
progressive subcortical encephalopathy Schilder's disease.
subacute spongiform encephalopathy (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) prion disease.
traumatic encephalopathy
Wernicke's encephalopathy a neurological disorder characterized by confusion, apathy, drowsiness, ataxia of gait, nystagmus, and ophthalmoplegia; it is due to thiamine deficiency, usually from chronic alcohol abuse. It is almost invariably accompanied by or followed by korsakoff's syndrome and frequently accompanied by other nutritional polyneuropathies. See also wernicke-korsakoff syndrome.

bo·vine spon·gi·form en·ceph·a·lop·a·thy (BSE),

a disease of cattle first reported in 1986 in Great Britain; characterized clinically by apprehensive behavior, hyperesthesia, and ataxia, and histologically by spongiform changes in the gray matter of the brain stem; caused by a prion, like spongiform encephalopathies of other animals (for example, scrapie) and human beings (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease [vCJD]).
Synonym(s): mad cow disease

In the middle 1990s, an unusual number of cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were reported in people under 30 years of age in Great Britain. These patients displayed typical clinical features but not the EEG changes characteristic of CJD, and autopsy specimens showed unusual amyloid plaques resembling those of kuru but not previously observed in CJD. This so-called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has been traced to consumption of beef products contaminated by central nervous system tissues of a cow infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). An epizootic of this disease killed more than 150,000 cattle in Britain between 1986 and 1996. Since July 1989 the importation of cattle and cattle products from the U.K. has been banned by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The discovery late in 2003 of a single dairy cow infected with BSE in Washington state prompted a revision of screening procedures in the U.S. and a tightening of restrictions on the use of meat products as human food. WHO consultants have condemned the practice of feeding ruminant-derived meat-and-bone meal to cattle and urged the adoption of measures to ensure that no part of any animal that shows signs of a spongiform encephalopathy enters any human or animal food chain. Milk, dairy products, gelatin, and lard are considered safe. see also Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

mad cow disease

mad cow disease

bovine spongiform encephalopathy

A disease of cattle which is characterised by high-stepping or staggering gait, anxiety, increased sensitivity and kicking while being milked, and less commonly by frenzy and aggressiveness.

Epidemiology
BSE has a long incubation period of two to eight years, and affects cattle that are fed bone meal and protein products from infected cattle; the disease is transmitted to humans by eating food contaminated with infected brain, spinal cord or GI tract. The human form of BSE has been called new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and as of late 2009, 166 people in the UK had died of the disease.

Aetiology
Prions.

mad cow disease

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, see there.

mad cow disease

colloquial term for BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY.

Creutzfeldt,

Hans Gerhard, German neuropsychiatrist, 1885-1964.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease - a form of subacute spongiform encephalopathy caused by a transmissible agent that has not been completely defined. Synonym(s): Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease; mad cow disease; transmissible dementia
Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease - Synonym(s): Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

mad cow disease

References in periodicals archive ?
January 2004--Officials in California say that it cannot be determined where a tainted shipment of soup bones, tenderloins, and other cuts of meat that were included in the voluntary mad cow disease program have ended up because it would violate several beef industry interests.
For terrific information on mad cow disease, visit the companion Web site to the NOVA program "The Brain Eater.
But mad cow disease is more than a public health problem.
The human form of mad cow disease so far has killed 143 people in Britain and ten elsewhere, none in the United States.
Since last September, three cows in Japan have been found to have mad cow disease.
Experts quickly observed that the agent responsible for vCJD is consistent with the agent that causes Mad Cow disease in cattle; tn other words, it was the same disease.
13 following the discovery of a suspected case of mad cow disease in Japan.
The agency said it had discovered 32 cases of mad cow disease since launching the programme, in which the cow's brain is probed for traces of an infectious protein, prion.
Chirac, a conservative, issued his request - unlikely to be ignored - in a special TV broadcast that follows a surge in public concern over the human consequences of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, commonly known as mad cow disease, turning up with increasing frequency in France.
7 million British cows affected by mad cow disease and deploy them across the U.
The British government itself started the panic by announcing that exposure to beef from cattle suffering Mad Cow Disease was "the most likely explanation" for the outbreak of a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease among humans.
The disease belongs to the cluster of deadly brain ailments, such as mad cow disease, that are spread by misshapen prion proteins (SN: 11/30/02, p.