Donaldson & Bosenberg (1995) showed that the cycad toxin macrozamin is an essential component of the diet of early instar Z.
transvenosus are known to contain macrozamin, a carcinogenic glycoside of methylazoxymethanol (Nair & Van Staden, 2012), it is unclear whether this compound is the active ingredient in the remedies prepared using E.
The toxins cycasin and macrozamin are both present in fresh and dried Stangeria stem material (Moretti et al, 1983); however, the emetic use thereof is ascribed to its high concentration of sodium sulphate (Osborne et al.
In some species of the genus Eumaeus, toxins of Zamia leaves, such as cycasin and macrozamin, are utilized by the caterpillars for their protection and also for the latter developmental stages of pupae and adults (Rothschild et al.
In this last species the presence of cycasin and macrozamin in seeds and ovules has been reported in previous studies (De Luca et al.
childrenae, and to corroborate the concentration of cycasin and macrozamin in leaves of both cycad species and different life stages of the butterfly.