Intensive glycemic control did not significantly affect the rates of heart attack, stroke, or death from cardiovascular disease, although there was a trend toward improvement in these macrovascular
Pharmacists must also maintain an in-depth understanding and working knowledge of the risks of comorbidities, including a wide array of micro and macrovascular
complications of cardiovascular disease.
The questionnaire also collected information regarding the patient's most recent fasting blood-glucose (FBG), lipid levels, blood pressure, and any diabetes-related complications, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, macrovascular
diseases, eye disorders, kidney disorders, erectile dysfunction, and/or diabetic neuropathy.
To date, an increase in macrovascular
complications hasn't been reported with CFRD, although most experts believe it will with longer follow-up, Dr.
The PROactive Study (Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial In Macrovascular
Events Study) showed that ACTOS (generic name: pioglitazone HCI), an oral antidiabetic agent, can reduce the risk of developing and dying of cardiovascular diseases including heart attack and strokes in type 2 diabetics.
Last May Mr Fitzpatrick had a leg amputated after he developed severe macrovascular
Among both diabetics and nondiabetics, higher prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular
diseases was observed in arseniasis-endemic than in the nonendemic areas.
Diabetes and its microvascular complications (like blindness) may start when fasting blood sugar levels hit 126, but the macrovascular
complications--that is, the damage to large blood vessels--seem to start at lower levels.
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a myopathic state independent of macrovascular
coronary artery complications and is the leading cause of death in both type I and type II diabetes (2).
Five-year targets for the prevention of micro-and macrovascular
complications were identified, as was the importance of educating patients and carers in diabetes management (Table 1) .
Though variable glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) is an established cause of increased microvascular complications, its link with macrovascular
events or increased cardiovascular events is still not proved despite several indirect evidences.
Reaven, an endocrinologist who directs the Diabetes Research Program at the University of Arizona and VA Health Care System, Phoenix, noted that, while a consistent body of evidence supports an association between higher levels of glucose and increased risk for CVD, it's not as clear that tight control efforts decrease a patient's risk for CVD at the microvascular and macrovascular