The log P values of each macrospecies were calculated based on the following equation:
where X is the mole fraction of the corresponding macrospecies of the charge indicated.
Using the protonation constants, the distribution curves for protonation macrospecies of LAP can be depicted as a function of the pH (Figure 3(a)).
Caption: FIGURE 3: (a) Logarithmic distribution diagram for the LAP protonation macrospecies. (b) Contribution of the LAP protonation macrospecies to the lipophilicity profile (in black broad line).
There are three major classes of exotic hitchhikers of concern with respect to bivalve aquaculture and introductions and transfers: (1) exotic macrospecies including algae and animals; (2) exotic phytoplankton (toxic and otherwise); and (3) exotic disease causing organisms.
Exotic macrospecies of invertebrates and algae may affect the bivalves with which they are associated in culture and the environment in general once introduced along with bivalves for aquaculture.
The most obvious and immediate effect of exotic macrospecies on aquaculture is the fouling of cultured bivalves and related equipment (lines, cages, buoys, etc.).