Gestational diabetes and fetal macrosomia
in a multi-ethnic population.
The potential risk reduction of infant macrosomia
depended on a woman's prepregnancy weight, with the findings only for overweight or obese women, or those with or at risk for gestational diabetes, barely reaching statistical significance.
fetale (peso del neonato superiore ai 4000 grammi).
2002) (malpresentation, antepartum bleeding, herpes, eclampsia, uterine scarring, multiple gestation, macrosomia
, unengaged fetal head, uterine abnormalities, other hypertension, preterm gestation, and congenital fetal anomalies), delivery mode (VD or CD), whether the patient labored, and major delivery complications, including laceration, hemorrhage, and infection (Srinivas et al.
In addition, excessive gestational weight gain is associated with numerous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes such as gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy-related hypertension, complications of labor and delivery, and macrosomia
(Beyerlein et al.
It marks a rise in the number with macrosomia
- or "big baby syndrome".
For women in pregnancy, obesity increases the rate of pregnancy complications, such as gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, delivery complications such as higher rates of caesarean sections and prolonged time of delivery, as well as adverse foetal outcomes such as macrosomia
, neural tube defects, and perinatal mortality.
Type 2 diabetes can mimic GDM but has more serious neonatal and maternal implications, such as foetal congenital malformations, foetal macrosomia
and more maternal cardiovascular and renal complications (42-45).
Obesity during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes which may include: fetal macrosomia
, low birthweight, preterm birth, and increased risk of cesarean delivery (Smith, 2008).
10-12) It has not changed despite increased awareness of the condition, increased rate of cesarean section delivery, and higher prevalence of fetal macrosomia
There was strong evidence of an association between gestation weight and birth weight and of high gestational weight being associated with greater risks of macrosomia
7-10) Adverse fetal outcomes include stillbirths, (9) shoulder dystocia, (9) meconium aspiration, (9) fetal distress, (9) higher birthweight, (5,10,11) macrosomia
, (10,12) large-for-gestational age infants, (7-10) neonatal metabolic abnormality (5) and early neonatal death.