Se identifican dos tipos de descargas electricas (Weibell, 1974): el macroshock
ocurre cuando la corriente fluye por una zona amplia de la piel, pasando por el corazon al pasar de una parte del cuerpo a otra; el microshock ocurre cuando la corriente fluye por una pequena zona de la piel y existen electrodos o cateteres conectados directamente al corazon, permitiendo la circulacion de corriente por el miocardio.
The first refers to a "big" shock or macroshock that produces nearly simultaneous, large, adverse effects on most or all of the domestic economy or system.
Note that in this second definition, unlike in the first macroshock definition, only one bank need be exposed in direct causation to the initial shock.
Nevertheless, the bank's and depositors' responses to damaging government policies are likely to exacerbate risk taking, the fragility of the financial sector, and the magnitude and damage of the macroshock (Crockett 2000).
The moral-hazard and principal-agent problems that poorly priced deposit insurance creates, or at least exacerbates, suggest that the cost-benefit balance would be improved if insurance coverage were provided beyond small accounts at most only in the event of a macroshock.
By far the most important contribution any government can make to preventing macroshocks and their effects is to avoid adopting monetary and fiscal policies that produce them or to introduce policies that moderate them.
If it is not feasible to limit the government safety net to macroshocks, however, it is feasible to restructure its operation to reduce the adverse side effects.
Rochet argues in favor of establishing independent and accountable banking supervisors, suggests a differential regulatory treatment of banks according to the costs and benefits of a potential bailout, and claims that independent banking authorities should make it clear from the start that certain banks with an excessive exposure to macroshocks
should be denied the access to emergency liquidity assistance by the central bank.