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Alpha (2)- macroglobulin: a novel cytochemical marker characterizing Preneoplastic and neoplastic rat liver lesions negative for hitherto Established cytochemical markers.
It's unclear how the identified mutation, a small deletion, affects alpha2 macroglobulin. It may hamper the protein's ability to bind other proteins.
Three most recognizable of them are [alpha]1 anti chymotrypsin (ACT), [alpha]1 macroglobulin & [alpha]1 protein inhibitor.
The values are traceable to the matrix material USNRP 12-0575C for albumin (ALB), ceruloplasmin (CER), [[alpha].sub.2] macroglobulin (A2M), haptoglobin (HPT), complement 3c (C3c), complement 4 (C4), IgA, IgG, and IgM and to the First International Standard CRP 85/ 506 for C-reactive protein (CRP).
[8] Nonstandard abbreviations: CRM, certified reference material; TTR, transthyretin (prealbumin); AAG, [[alpha].sub.1] acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid); AAT, [[alpha].sub.1] antitrypsin ([[alpha].sub.1]-protease inhibitor); TRF, transferrin; ACT, [[alpha].sub.1] antichymotrypsin; ALB, albumin; CER, ceruloplasmin; A2M, [[alpha].sub.2] macroglobulin; HPT, haptoglobin; C3c, complement 3c; C4, complement 4; CRP, C-reactive protein; B2M, [[beta].sub.2]-microglobulin; TF, transfer factor.
Currently the most reliable serologic assessment of liver fibrosis uses a panel of 5 markers: [alpha]2 macroglobulin (a2M), haptoglobin, apolipoprotein [alpha]1 , y-glutamyl transpeptidase, and bilirubin (4).
Analysis was performed with an Immage instrument (Beckman-Coulter) for the following 22 analytes: albumin, prealbumin (PAB), [[alpha].sub.1]-acid glycoprotein, al-antitrypsin, [[alpha].sub.2] macroglobulin (AMG), ([[beta].sub.2] microglobulin, factor B, C1 inhibitor, C1q, C3, C4, C5, ceruloplasmin (CERU), IgA, IgG, IgGj, IgGz, IgG3, Ig[G.sub.4], IgM, and [kappa] and [lambda] light chains.
Contributing variables could include the release of proteolytic enzymes during blood clotting and the formation of complexes between fPSA and [[alpha].sub.2] macroglobulin (17).
Several predictive indices using more commonly performed laboratory tests have been proposed, including the Forns index (8), which uses age, [gamma]-glutamyl transferase (GGT), cholesterol, platelet count, and prothrombin time; the APRI index, which uses aspartate aminotransferase activity and platelet count (9); and the Fibrotest/Actitest (10), which uses GGT, bilirubin, [[alpha].sub.2] macroglobulin, haptoglobin, and apolipoprotein [A.sub.1] (along with alanine aminotransferase for the Actitest).