To determine whether follicle cells need to be attached to the oocyte for GVBD to occur, a Nitex filter was used to separate oocytes from their surrounding follicular sheaths at various timepoints following ovarian maceration [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 7A OMITTED].
In comparison, the [T.sub.1/2] ovulation time for cohort controls not stripped of their follicular sheath was 79 [+ or -] 18 min post-detachment of the follicles from the ovaries (n = 16), and the control groups averaged [greater than]90% GVBD by 3 h after ovarian maceration.
This maturation level was significantly lower (P [less than] 0.05) than the 81% [+ or -] 30% (n = 7) GVBD level obtained in CD-treated oocytes from cohort ovaries (n = 7) that were not pre-incubated in CD but only immersed in it for 3 h after ovarian maceration, which in turn suggests that GVBD is inhibited by a prior incubation in CD that allows follicle cell-oocyte attachments enough time to be altered before oocyte maturation can be triggered.
Follicles that were isolated from ripe ovaries by such maceration techniques were rapidly washed once with filtered seawater (SW) and subsequently kept at 12 [degrees]- 16 [degrees] C.
At various time-points after maceration of the ovaries, the isolated follicles were drawn through the Nitex-covered syringe 5-10 times so that nearly all of the oocytes were completely stripped of their follicle cells without significantly damaging the oocytes.
In fact, the effect of longterm maceration on wines that are made in a later-than-once-upon-a-time harvest model has yet to be fully tested by scientific principles.
With long maceration, the short-chain tannins polymerize into long-chain tannins, and this has the effect of "integrating" the tannins into the wine, making it softer.
Knowing that the real character in red wine comes from the skins, many California wine-makers who are aiming to get lots of flavor into their wine rely to a great degree on extended post-fermentation maceration.
However, each wine has a certain level of solubility, and if a winemaker chooses to do four days of cold soak, the amount of time left for proceeding with an extended maceration is the-oretically reduced.
Left unanswered at this point are the following: What is the effect of a 10-day maceration after a four-day cold soak?