oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinks may be assessed as markers of functional properties of tendon tissue formation.
It is an essential co-factor for the two enzymes required for collagen synthesis: prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl
First, the cross-linkage of elastic and collagen fibers in the derms by lysyl
oxidase was copper dependent.
oxidase and glucose transporter -1 expression correlate with Gleason score.
Bacteriocins are in general cationic, amphipathic molecules as they contain an excess of lysyl
and arginyl residues.
Cu(II) is also a key constituent of various enzymes systems including super oxide, dismutase (SOD), cytochrome c-oxidase, lysyl
oxidase and ceruloplasmin [9-12].
Researchers found a protein called lysyl
oxidase, or Lox, allowed breast cancer cells to latch on to growth receptors - helping them grow more rapidly.
Pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxy-pyridinoline (DPD) are specific cross-links formed within structural collagens between lysine or hydroxylysine residues in the telopeptide region with specific sites within the collagen triple helix, with PYD having 2 forms, hydroxylysyl PYD formed from 3 hydroxylysine residues and lysyl
PYD which is derived from 1 lysine and 2 hydroxylysine residues.
Areca nut contains arcoline in form of alkaloids which modulate matrix metalloproteinase, collagenases, lysyl
oxidase which results in up regulation of collagen and leads to fibrosis.
This observation is consistent with a previous finding on copper-mediated progression of oral cancer via regulating the activity of lysyl
oxidase (LOX) (Shih et al.
This effect may be due to inhibition of enzyme lysyl
oxidase which forms collagen cross links and makes bone matrix stable,11 by reducing bone blood flow23 or by an increase in osteoblast activity as well as osteoclast activity in response to increased homocysteine levels with predominant osteoclast activity.
GS-4997 demonstrated anti-fibrotic activity in an open-label Phase 2 clinical trial that included 72 patients with NASH and moderate to severe (F2-F3) liver fibrosis, who received treatment with GS-4997 (18 mg or 6 mg orally once daily) alone or in combination with simtuzumab (SIM), an investigational antibody directed against lysyl
oxidase-like-2 (LOXL2), or SIM alone (125 mg administered via weekly subcutaneous injections) for 24 weeks.