Parrill, "Molecular mechanisms of lysophosphatidic acid
action," Progress in Lipid Research, vol.
Lysophosphatidylcholine induces neuropathic pain through an action of autotaxin to generate lysophosphatidic acid
. Neuroscience 152, 296-298.
Inoue, "Lysophosphatidic acid
(LPA) receptors of the EDG family are differentially activated by LPA species," FEBS Letters, vol.
The synthesis of PA occurs by two acylation steps; first glycerol-3-phosphate is converted to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid
) by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase.
Van Blitterswijk, "Metabolic conversion of the biologically active phospholipid, lysophosphatidic acid
, in fibroblasts," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol.
The lysophosphatidic acid
2 receptor mediates down-regulation of Siva-1 to promote cell survival.
Identification of the molecular species of lysophosphatidic acid
produced when platelets are stimulated by thrombin.
They discuss their prevalence, pathophysiology, and existing therapeutic options; what constitutes a lipid and how it is broken down to generate biologically active mediators; mediators like arachidonic acid, platelet-activating factor, and lysophosphatidic acid
, how they act, and their role in airway inflammation; the products of arachidonic acid metabolism, such as leukotrienes, prostaglandins, epieicosatrienoic acid, and oxoeicosatetraenoic acid; anti-inflammatory lipid mediators such as lipoxin and drug discovery efforts to mimic lipoxin action; enzymes that affect the process of lipid mediator synthesis, their biology, and drug discovery efforts; the role of sphingosine and ceramide; and kinases.
Mutations in the LPAR6 (MIM 609239) and LIPH (MIM 607365) genes have been reported to cause autosomal recessive WH/hypotrichosis phenotype in various families.6,7 The LPAR6 and LIPH genes have been shown to have a common signalling pathway and are involved in hair growth in humans.8 The LPAR6 gene encodes lysophosphatidic acid
receptor 6 (LPAR6), whereas, the LIPH codes for lipase H (or a membrane-associated phosphatidic acid-selective phospholipase A1a [mPA-PLA1a]) that produce 2-acyl lysophosphatidic acid
(LPA).8,9 LPA plays an important role in various biological functions and is a ligand of LPAR6.8,9 The protein products of LPAR6 and LIPH gene are abundantly expressed in the inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle.
The company recently used this ImmuneY2 process to generate a monoclonal antibody against lysophosphatidic acid
, another bioactive lipid with well-documented roles in cancer and pain management.
The instrument was operated in positive ion mode for phosphatidyl- and lysophosphatidyl-choline, and phosphatidylserine, and in the negative ion mode for phosphatidic and lysophosphatidic acid
, phosphatidyl- and lysophosphatidyl-ethanolamine, phosphatidyl- and lysophosphatidyl-glycerol, and phosphatidylinositol, with electrospray voltages of 4500 and -4000 V, respectively.
Choline is an indicator of phospholipase D activity, which also generates potent platelet activators such as phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid
. Phospholipase D is involved in platelet activation by collagen and thrombin (3-7), monocyte and macrophage activation by oxidized LDL (8), matrix metalloproteinase secretion, and endothelial cell dysfunction (9).