In this article, Nevins does acknowledge that certain lycopods
and ferns are commonly found in Carboniferous age coal beds but neither Nevins nor other creationist authors tell their audience that these coal beds have no flowering plant component.
Several years ago, when I took my college class on a field trip to the area, I regaled them with the ancient lineage of the lycopods
and explained that their spores are exceedingly small but of a uniform diameter.
, horsetails, and ferns (spore-producing plants) are some of the best studied groups of plants in Mississippi.
A time of forests, swamps, seed ferns, mosses, lycopods
and the origin of the amniote egg.
These termites and their ancestors are thought to have been eating old dead wood for at least 400 million years, since the Devonian, when Earth's forests consisted of tree lycopods
and giant seed ferns.
Although in secondary forests dominance and density of bromeliads, orchids, mosses, epiphytic ferns and lycopods
, and other epiphytes typically decrease, in many cases vines exhibited and increase abundance and density (Martin et al., 2004).
Most trees are covered in lichens, such as beard lichens (Usnea) and other epiphytic lichens, lycopods
, ferns--especially filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae)--mosses.
A time traveler from today's world would have a hard time recognizing the trees in this forest, especially the strange lycopods
that ruled the ancient swamps.
The free-living sporophytes of ferns and lycopods
were derived from the dependent sporophytes of a bryophyte-like plant by further proliferation and sterilization, and the acquisition of physiological independence from the gametophyte.
There were also giant lycopods
(Lepidoden-dron, Sigillaria, etc.), which reached up to 100 ft (30 m) in height and often had hollow trunks, as is the case in many present-day tropical trees.
In vascular cryptogams (psilophytes, lycopods
, sphenophytes, ferns), the sporophyte, though usually becoming independent, nonetheless has early stages that are heavily dependent on the gametophyte.