of the intertarsal joint in avian patients is often due to trauma or underlying developmental abnormalities such as avulsion of the attachment site for the flexor hallucis muscle, rupture or displacement of the tibial cartilage, displacement of the gastrocnemius tendon, or rupture of the collateral ligaments and joint retinaculum [1-3].
in the [C.sub.1]-[C.sub.5] group).
Ligament damage and luxations
of the intertarsal joint are relatively common in the avian patient.
The findings were that the hard root tissue union was significantly affected by pulp necrosis and luxation
of the coronal fragment.
Cisternal puncture should not be used in patients who are suspected (on the basis of plain radiographic techniques) to have cervical vertebral fractures or luxations
. Myelography permits the delineation of the following types of lesions affecting the spinal cord:
The following information pertaining to the child and to the trauma were collected from the dental record: gender and age at the time of trauma, etiology (fall from own height, accidents, collision and others), teeth involved, type of traumatic injuries (fractures and luxations
), time elapsed between the trauma and seeking care, presence and kind of clinical and radiographic sequelae observed at the first visit.
Injured adjacent teeth occurred in 12/20 patients and 10 had crown fractures accompanied also by several types of injuries 6 with crown fracture and subluxation, 2 patients with crown fracture and avulsion and 2 patients with crown fracture and intrusive luxation
. In addition, avulsion of adjacent teeth was seen in 2 more patients
have been reported in psittacine birds, raptors, small cage birds, pigeons, and waterfowl, but can occur in all avian species.
Results of extra-articular stabilization following open reduction of coxofemoral luxation
in dogs and cats.
A low number of tooth fractures and luxations
(13,14) Total hip prosthetics have replaced FHO procedures as the preferred method to treat hip disease in humans; however, FHO remains a viable salvage procedure for small mammals with coxofemoral joint disease, including degenerative joint disease, hip dysplasia, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, recurrent luxations
, and irreparable fractures.
Because of the resilient bone surrounding the primary teeth, the majority of injuries are tooth luxations
[Bastone et al., 2000; Saroglu and Sonmez, 2002].