Most parathyroid adenomas are located in the neck region and mediastinum, most common location being the lower pole
which is similar to what we saw in our patients.
This study encompassed only those cases, which were operated by a single surgeon at our institute, in which total 281 patients were enrolled for this study, data was recorded for the name, gender, age, date of surgery, side of surgery, position for surgery, puncture attempts, needle used for puncture, number of air instillations, anatomy of calyces (simple or complex), access (upper, lower or simultaneous upper and lower pole
) and success or failure in localizing posterior calyx after instillation of the air (3-5cc in boluses.) Each patient in the study was operated under general anesthesia, in the lithotomy position.
(14) reported that they successfully treated a 99x82x81 mm cystic nephroma with left kidney lower pole
localization by open partial nephrectomy.
However, an incidental left lower pole
solid renal mass (3.4 cm) was seen, and she was referred to urology for further evaluation of the renal mass.
Ultrasonography revealed an 8x6.2x6 cm heterogeneous exophytic trending lesion at the lower pole
of the left kidney.
A new operation for the treatment of hydronephrosis in association with a lower pole
(or aberrant artery).
In over 90 % of cases, fusion between the kidneys occurs at the lower pole
; however, we can also observe upper pole fusion resulting in "inverted HSK" (5-10 %).
Staghorn stones 22 Stone location - Lower pole
52 - Middle pole 4 - Upper pole 12 - Pelvis 66 - Lower pole
and pelvis 60 - Multiple caliceal 29 Mean Guy score 1.89[+ or -]0.9 (1-4) Mean S.T.O.N.E.
It showed a mass lesion arising from posterior of middle and lower pole
of right kidney, measuring 7.9x7.1 cm with few hypodense areas of fat attenuation, confirming it as AML.
Updated with recent techniques, this edition has a section on oncoplastic breast surgery, with new chapters on breast conservation techniques in upper and lower pole
lesions and subareolar lesions, combined breast conservation techniques with reduction mammoplasty, extreme oncoplastic techniques, total skin sparing mastectomy, skin sparing mastectomy for the pendulous breast, the Goldilocks mastectomy, and alternatives to tissue rearrangement.
There is a tiny hypodense area at lower pole
of left kidney with internal fat attenuation...
Hydrodissection describes the process of physically displacing structures away from renal tumors, while pyeloperfusion is used to cool or maintain body temperature within the ipsilateral ureter during thermal ablations of tumors that arise from the medial lower pole
and keep ureter from untargeted thermal injury.