lower airway


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Related to lower airway: upper airways

airway

 [ar´wa]
1. the passage by which air enters and leaves the lungs.
2. a mechanical device used for securing unobstructed respiration when the patient is not breathing or is otherwise unable to maintain a clear passage, such as during general anesthesia or respiratory arrest.
Oropharyngeal Airway. This device is inserted into the mouth to prevent the tongue from obstructing the pharynx.
Esophageal airway.
It should not be used on alert or semiconscious patients, as it invariably stimulates the gag reflex and causes vomiting or injury to the jaw unless the patient is deeply unconscious.

Selection of proper size is essential because an airway that is too short cannot lift the tongue away from the oropharynx. The airway should be gently inserted so as to avoid trauma to the mucous membranes. It must be inserted with the tip up and rotated 180 degrees when it reaches the back of the throat so that the tongue is not displaced back into the pharynx, where it will obstruct the air passage. The proper size is the distance from the earlobe to the edge of the mouth.
Esophageal Obturator Airway. This is a hollow tube inserted into the esophagus to maintain airway patency in unconscious persons and to permit positive-pressure ventilation through the face mask connected to the tube. It was designed to be used by trained pre-hospital medical personnel to establish an airway. Its use has declined because of training of pre-hospital medical personnel in the insertion of endotracheal tubes, and because studies have suggested poor performance.
Esophageal Gastric Tube Airway. This is a hollow tube with a balloon at the end, which is blindly inserted into the esophagus, obstructing the esophagus and theoretically forcing air into the trachea, thus decompressing the stomach and alleviating abdominal distention; it represents an improvement in the design of the esophageal obturator airway. Ventilation occurs in the oropharynx.
Nasopharyngeal Airway. This is a hollow tube placed through the nose into the nasopharynx to bypass upper airway obstruction or to decrease trauma from nasotracheal suctioning.
Endotracheal Tube (or Airway). This inflatable tube is inserted into the mouth or nose and passed into the trachea to provide mechanical ventilation, to provide a suction route, to prevent aspiration of stomach contents, and to bypass upper airway obstruction.
Tracheostomy. This involves a surgical incision into the trachea and insertion of a metal or plastic tube through the incision. (See also tracheostomy.)
airway clearance, ineffective a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as inability by an individual to clear secretions or obstructions from the respiratory tract to maintain a clear airway. Etiologic factors include decreased energy and fatigue; infection, obstruction, or excessive secretions in the tracheobronchial tree; perceptual/cognitive impairment associated with decreased oxygenation to brain cells; and trauma to the respiratory tract.

Defining characteristics presented by a person with ineffective airway clearance are likely to include abnormal breath sounds, alterations in respiratory rate or depth, cough (effective or ineffective and with or without sputum), cyanosis, dyspnea, and possibly fever.
Patient Care. Goals and outcome criteria for planning and interventions to prevent, minimize, or alleviate ineffective airway clearance will depend on the patient's medical diagnosis, specific nursing diagnoses, and related pathophysiology. In general, the goals are to promote the movement of air in and out of the lungs; prevent development of infection, atelectasis, and accumulations of stagnant secretions in the lungs; and encourage preventive and therapeutic pulmonary hygiene to maintain good ventilation.

Some appropriate nursing interventions to accomplish these goals might include teaching the patient effective coughing practices, assisting with postural drainage and other techniques used by the respiratory therapist to remove secetions from the respiratory tract, helping the patient to stop smoking, helping the patient identify and avoid allergens in the environment, maintaining a clean and infection-free environment, repositioning and encouraging early ambulation in post-surgical patients, and providing instruction in ways to avoid extreme fatigue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
conducting airway the lower and upper airways together, from the nares to the terminal bronchioles.
lower airway the airway from the lower end of the larynx to the ends of the terminal bronchioles.
upper airway the airway from the nares and lips to the larynx.

low·er air·way

the portion of the respiratory tract that extends from the subglottis to and including the terminal bronchioles.

low·er air·way

(lō'ĕr ār'wā)
The portion of the respiratory tract that extends from the subglottis to and including the terminal bronchioles.
References in periodicals archive ?
A negative correlation was found in hyperdivergent group between the upper and lower airway space and the FMA.
[4] It gives information about the condition of lower airways by performing pulmonary function tests.
During this process, mucus is propelled from the airways toward the throat by the continuous ciliary beating of ciliated cells.[34] MUC5B and MUC5AC, the main mucins of the mucus gel, are mainly produced by the goblet cells of the surface epithelium and by the submucosal glands.[33] Moreover, it has been reported that club cells can produce MUC5B in the lower airways.[35] A second constitutive defense lining, the periciliary layer, separates the luminal airway epithelium and mucin gel.
The major factors include an increased risk of aspiration, abnormalities in the way particles are eliminated from the conducting airways through the mucus (i.e., in mucociliary clearance), and impaired activity of one branch of the immune system (i.e., innate immunity) within the lower airways (for reviews, see Joshi and Guidot 2007; Mehta and Guidot 2012).
Auzary and colleagues (6) reported on five cases of pregnancy with WG and put forward that the differential diagnosis of WG from preeclampsia should be made by the absence of hypertension (which is rare in a WG flare), the presence of extra-renal manifestations, especially upper and lower airways, and positive ANCA titers.
Radiography is most commonly the initial modality for the evaluation of upper and lower airway abnormalities in the pediatric patient and may be followed by CT studies to further evaluate inflammatory processes and extent of trauma.
Both conditions are chronic inflammatory diseases of the lower airway that can lead to irreversible 11 image called airway remodeling.
She noticed that although the airways of the children initially appeared normal, the lower airway had doubled branches, or "doublets" as she calls them.
Although lower airway obstruction may result from a wide variety of pathologic conditions, most cases are secondary to endotracheal tube or tracheostomy injury.
Although particles larger than 2.0 [micro]m are believed to typically settle in the upper airway and not pass into the lower airway, Banauch et al.
Independent t-test was used to compare upper and lower airway space in Class II high and low growth patterns.