Fluorescence properties of oxidised human plasma low-density lipoproteins
Vinson and his colleagues found that, matched molecule for molecule, chocolates flavonoids are more powerful than vitamins such as ascorbic acid in limiting the oxidation of cholesterol circulating in low-density lipoproteins
(LDLs) and very-low-density lipoproteins
During the high-protein phase, the participants' blood concentrations of triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins
fell, while high-density-lipoprotein concentrations climbed.
Their cholesterol-shuttling, low-density lipoproteins
(LDLs)--the so-called bad lipoproteins--were unusually small and dense.
Cholesterol-carrying low-density lipoproteins
(LDLs) in the blood can be oxidized by naturally occurring molecular fragments known as free radicals.
Working with simulated cell membranes and low-density lipoproteins
from people who had taken different vitamin E supplements, the scientists tested the tocopherols' ability to detoxify peroxynitrite, a nitrogen oxide that appears to be associated with inflammation.
In the body, oxidation transforms lipid-rich low-density lipoproteins
(LDLs) in the blood into the foam cells that create artery-clogging plaque.
In the generation of heart disease, the oxidative transformation of cholesterol-carrying low-density lipoproteins
(LDLs) in the blood leads to the buildup of artery-clogging plaque.
In fact, a relatively fatty milk chocolate bar can be swapped for a low-fat daily snack possessing the same calories without raising low-density lipoproteins
in the blood-- a major risk factor in heart disease.
Since then, several studies have confirmed the ability of trans fats not only to increase concentrations of "bad," low-density lipoproteins
(LDLs) -- as most saturated fats do -- but also to decrease concentrations of "good," high-density lipoproteins (HDLs).